Hopes of a working Covid-19 vaccine grow as two projects in the UK and US reported promising results in their early experiments.
Teams from Oxford University and the American pharmaceutical company Moderna have both shown that people show signs of immunity in their studies.
Everyone has been working on separate experimental bumps for months to try to protect millions of people from getting infected with the corona virus in the future.
Oxford scientists have already said they are 80 percent convinced that they can have their push available until September.
People who have been given the Oxford vaccine have developed antibodies and white blood cells called T cells that help their bodies fight off the virus when they become infected.
Moderna experts based in Cambridge, Massachusetts said that the participants in their study – with a different type of vaccine – all successfully developed antibodies.
The vaccines pretend that the body is infected with Covid-19 and produce immune substances that can destroy it.
While early research focused on antibodies, scientists are increasingly turning to a type of immunity, T-cell immunity, which is controlled by white blood cells and shows promising signs.
A source from the Oxford project told ITV News: & # 39; An important point to note is that the immune response has two dimensions: antibodies and T cells.
"Everyone is focused on antibodies, but there is growing evidence that T cell response is important for coronavirus defense."
A vaccine against the UK-developed coronavirus shows positive signs that it may work after studies show that participants develop cells that can kill the disease
The Oxford study involves around 8,000 people across the UK and up to 6,000 people in Brazil and South Africa, where the sting may be easier to test because more people are infected with the corona virus.
The vaccine is manufactured by AstraZeneca, based in Cambridge, England. Millions of cans have already been ordered by number 10 in the hope that it will work.
ITV political editor Robert Peston wrote on a blog that he was told to expect good news about the process later this week. The results are expected in the British medical journal The Lancet on Thursday.
The play says: "Apparently the vaccine produces the type of antibody and T cell response (killer cell) that the researchers would hope for."
Official results of the study, which was the first in the UK to participate in human studies, have not yet been published.
In the early stages, researchers will want to see that the shock is safe for humans and causes no serious side effects, and that it appears to be stimulating the immune system in the right way.
If these checkpoints are exceeded, researchers are expected to conduct even larger tests with thousands of other members of the public.
WHAT ARE THE LEADING COVID 19 VACCINE CANDIDATES?
Clinical teams at the Jenner Institute at Oxford University and the Oxford Vaccine Group began developing the vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 called AZD1222 in January after a manufacturing partnership with pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca was signed.
Human trials started on April 23 and are now in their final stages.
Project manager Professor Sarah Gilbert told The Times that she was 80 percent convinced of his success.
Imperial College London
Professor Robin Shattock leads a team working at Imperial College to produce a vaccine.
Fifteen volunteers have already received the vaccines, and 200 to 300 new participants are expected to take the tests in the coming weeks.
A second process with 6,000 people will take place later.
However, Professor Shattock said the vaccine will not be available until at least 2021, even if everything goes according to plan.
If the push works, the team wants to make it as cheap as possible so that the entire UK population can be vaccinated for the "really good value" of just under £ 200m.
Massachusetts-based Moderna was the first U.S. company to begin human trials on March 16 with its potential Covid-19 vaccine, known as mRNA-1273.
According to a study published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine on July 14, the stab triggers an immune response in all 45 injected volunteers.
Moderna's shot showed promising results in his Phase 2 human tests last month. The company reported that it triggered antibody production similar to that seen in recovered coronavirus patients.
CanSino's Chinese Ad5-nCoV vaccine was the first vaccine to enter clinical trials earlier this year and is a leading candidate.
A study of 108 healthy volunteers in China showed that it certainly triggered an immune response in the participants.
Results published in The Lancet on May 22 showed that most of the people who received the vaccine had immune responses, although their antibody levels, which were thought to neutralize the virus, were relatively low. The researchers saw a stronger increase in other immune connections called T cells, which could also help fight the infection.
Pfizer and BioNTech have launched & # 39; BNT162 program & # 39; worked on a number of potential Covid-19 vaccines.
Positive preliminary results from the ongoing Phase I / II clinical trial called BNT162b1 were reported on July 1.
Data are available for the study with BNT162b1 on 24 volunteers. The results showed that it was well tolerated and produced dose-dependent immunity.
Dr. Kathrin Jansen, head of vaccine research and development at Pfizer, said the vaccine "is capable of producing human neutralizing antibody responses at or above levels seen in Covid-19 survivors."
Pfizer received the Fast Track Award from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for two of its four potential Covid-19 vaccines this month.
Johnson & Johnson
The drug giant started working on the vaccine in January, two months before Covid-19 was classified as a global pandemic.
A Johnson and Johnson-led vaccine study will begin recruiting in September. The clinical data will be available at the end of the year.
As early as 2021, an emergency batch of the vaccine is expected to be used, which is likely to be prioritized for vulnerable people.
Moderna, the US pharmaceutical company, reports that it has passed these early milestones and is now planning to conduct larger studies.
The company's researchers announced yesterday evening that all 45 volunteers had developed immune responses in the early post-vaccination phase.
They also found that the sting – one of the frontrunners in the global race for coronavirus vaccines – was safe and no participants had serious side effects.
However, more than half reported mild or moderate reactions such as fatigue, headache, chills, muscle aches, or pain at the injection site.
Scientists said side effects are a "low price" for protection against Covid-19.
Dr. Anthony Fauci, the US government's leading infectious disease expert, said, "No matter how you slice this, that's good news."
Moderna was the first U.S. company to begin testing a vaccine against the novel human coronavirus on March 16, 66 days after the genetic release of the pathogen by China.
It is now preparing to start a 30,000-person study later this month to prove that the vaccine is really strong enough to protect against the coronavirus.
The company's stock price rose sharply in the news as it raised hopes of progress in the global fight against Covid-19.
The U.S. government supports Moderna's vaccine with nearly half a billion dollars.
His vaccine, known as mRNA-1273, works with ribonucleic acid (RNA), a chemical messenger in the human body that contains instructions on how to make proteins.
The stab introduces RNA that programs the body to produce proteins that resemble those on the surface of the coronavirus. This stimulates the immune system to react because these proteins are recognized as a danger – although they are not actually bound to a virus and cannot do any harm.
This then trains the body to recognize them as foreign intruders and to develop an immune response against them.
The results, published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine, included three groups of 15 volunteers aged 18 to 55.
The groups tested 25, 100 or 250 micrograms of the vaccine. Each was given two doses 28 days apart.
The team reported a dose-dependent effect in which the participants showed a greater antibody response the higher their vaccine dose.
In comparison, the team from the Oxford University team injects a damaged part of the real corona virus that is linked to another harmless virus.
It is a type of immunization known as a recombinant vector viral vaccine.
Researchers are placing genetic material from the corona virus into another virus that has been modified. They will then inject the virus into a human in the hope of eliciting an immune response against SARS-CoV-2.
The carrier virus weakened by genetic engineering, which does not make humans sick, is a type of virus called adenovirus, just like those that cause colds and chimpanzees have been harvested.
If the vaccines successfully mimick the spikes that are in a person's bloodstream outside of Covid-19 and can stimulate the immune system to develop special antibodies to attack it, this could train the body to destroy the real coronavirus if they will be infected with it in the future.
It could be developed by Professor Sarah Gilbert, a vaccination expert, and her team so quickly because they already had a base vaccine for similar corona viruses.
Professor Gilbert said earlier this month that protection against a coronavirus bite should take at least several years.
She told MPs she was optimistic that a vaccine would offer "a good duration of immunity".
She is the world-renowned expert who leads a team at Oxford University that is developing a vaccine. So your claim could help dispel fears of how long protection against Covid-19 could last.
Concerns were raised that those with other types of coronaviruses – which are less dangerous and cause colds – could be re-infected in tests within a year.
But Professor Gilbert told the Commons Science and Technology Committee that a vaccine may give a better result than the natural immunity obtained when individuals simply recover from a virus.
She said: “Vaccines have a different way of contacting the immune system, and we follow people in our studies who use the same technology to make the vaccines for several years, and we still see strong immune responses.
"It's something we have to test and follow over time. We can't know until we actually have the data."
"However, based on previous studies, we are optimistic that we will see good immunity for at least several years and probably better than naturally acquired immunity."
The key question is whether the vaccine will protect them from infection or just make them less sick. It may also work less well in older people because their immune systems are weak.
Sir John Bell, Regius professor of medicine at Oxford University, also advised the committee and warned that Britain would have to prepare for the worst this winter instead of relying on developing a vaccine.
But he said he has now seen tests for good standard corona viruses that can produce a result in "a few minutes".
Sir John said, "That would be transformative because we could all test ourselves regularly and test our kids after they went to a rave and all that stuff."
He also urged the British to get the flu shot to "avoid pandemonium in A&E departments".
Trials have also begun on possible antibody treatment that could protect the elderly from coronavirus.
Instead of a conventional vaccine, the proposed treatment would give patients a three-minute infusion of antibodies to the virus that could provide protection for up to six months.
For people whose immune system is not responding to a vaccine, including those taking immunosuppressive drugs or undergoing chemotherapy, this could be an alternative way to develop resistance to the virus.
Older people are also less responsive to vaccines, so antibody infusion could help provide additional protection to older people who are at higher risk of coronavirus, The Times reported.
The pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca is testing the treatment and the drug manufacturer is also working with Oxford University on a possible vaccine.
In addition to preventing people from getting the disease, antibody therapy can help people who have got it to recover faster.
Sir Mene Pangalos, who leads the company's research into the treatment of respiratory diseases, told The Times: “There is an older population who may not have a particularly good immune response to the vaccine.
"In these cases, you may want to prophylactically treat these patients with an antibody to provide them with additional protection."
It is not yet clear whether the treatment will work and the first human study will only have around 30 participants.
If there are no security problems, larger tests can begin in autumn.
Sir Mene added: “We will do this as soon as possible. Of course, we have to show that you are safe, but antibodies are known entities – it should be safe.
The study is based on initial research at Vanderbilt University in the United States that examined monoclonal antibodies that can mimic the antibodies produced by the body after being infected with the coronavirus.
However, antibody therapy is not expected to be an alternative to a vaccine because it is expensive and does not offer protection for such a long period of time.
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