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The UK government signs a contract with drug giant GSK for 60 million doses of potential coronavirus vaccine


The ministers today signed a multi-million pound contract with pharmaceutical giants GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi Pasteur for over 60 million doses of another potential Covid-19 vaccine.

Number 10 has now secured four different types of experimental coronavirus shocks, giving the UK access to a total of 250 million doses – enough to give everyone in the UK the chance to get four each if they work.

Scientists have not yet tested the GSK / Sanofi vaccine on humans, and studies showing that it works won't start until September. Other competitors bought by number 10 have already shown promising signs in tests.

The Department of Enterprise, Energy and Industry Strategy said that the kick – bought in a deal that is said to cost £ 500m – could be given to high-risk Britons if it passed the tests in the first half of next year.

The UK has started to support experimental jabs around the world in its spread bet approach last month, hoping that at least one of them will pay off.

The health leaders hope that the Oxford University vaccine they bought – one of the frontrunners in the global race to end the pandemic – could be ready before the end of the year.

The contract was signed with GlaxoSmithKline (picture) and Sanofi Pasteur

What four vaccines has the UK done safe business with?

1. GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi Pasteur: 60 million cans

The government announced on July 29 that it had signed a contract with pharmaceutical giants GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Sanofi Pasteur

If the vaccine proves successful, the UK could start vaccinating priority groups in the first half of next year, e.g. B. Frontline health and social workers and people at increased risk of coronavirus (BEIS) said.

Human clinical trials with the vaccine begin in September, followed by a phase 3 study in December.

2. AstraZeneca (Oxford University producing): 100 million

AstraZeneca, which works with Oxford University, is already making the experimental vaccine after a deal was closed on May 17th.

Professor Sarah Gilbert, who heads the Oxford team, is confident that the push could be ready for the most vulnerable by the end of the year.

Her comments came after the first phase results, published in The Lancet on July 20, were promising.

3. BioNTech / Pfizer: 30 million

The American drug giant Pfizer, known for Viagra, and the German company BioNTech signed a contract with the British government on July 20.

Positive results from the ongoing phase 2/3 clinical trial called BNT162b1 were reported on July 1. The company is currently still conducting phase 2 studies.

4. Valneva: 60 million

The government has provided Valneva – whose vaccine is in a preclinical stage of development – an undisclosed amount of money for the expansion of its Livingston, Scotland factory.

While the government announced a 60 million dose deal on July 20, the company said it had, in principle, reached an agreement with the UK government to provide up to 100 million doses.

Economics Minister Alok Sharma said: “Our scientists and researchers are striving for a safe and effective vaccine at a rate and size never seen before.

“Although this progress is really remarkable, the fact remains that there are no guarantees.

"In the meantime, it is important that we get early access to a variety of promising vaccine candidates like GSK and Sanofi to increase our chances of finding one that works so we can protect the public and save lives."

A vaccine is believed to be crucial to ending the pandemic that has so far killed nearly 660,000 people.

This would be the only way to promise people protection against the capture of the coronavirus by triggering an immune response that the body remembers how to attack again if it becomes infected with the real virus in the future.

But until a bump has proven to be safe and effective, checking depends on cases of social distancing, regular hand washing, and wearing face masks.

Governments know that this is not a long-term solution to the disease as preventive measures and barriers have paralyzed the economy, lost thousands of jobs, and triggered warnings of the worst recession in 300 years.

Scientists are looking for a vaccine that protects millions. 25 are already being tested on humans and 140 in preclinical studies.

The government's deal with GSK / Sanofi is said to cost £ 500m, the Sunday Times reported earlier this month, which will be paid gradually as the vaccine goes through clinical trials.

Phase 3 trials – the final testing phase before it can be approved for human use – are not expected to be achieved by December.

Earlier this month, the government signed a contract for 30 million cans from BioNTech, which works with Pfizer, and 60 million from the French company Valneva.

It's not clear how much the Ministry of Health paid for the vaccines, but it announced a £ 131m fund for the development of vaccine manufacturing facilities in May.

And it has given Valneva – whose vaccine is in a preclinical stage of development – an undisclosed amount of money to expand its Livingston, Scotland factory.

Another agreement has been signed with AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford to manufacture 100 million cans for the UK, which are in Phase 3 trials.

The government is also working with Imperial College London to accelerate its developments. His push began in June with human trials.

Kate Bingham, chair of the government’s Vaccines Task Force, said, “This variety of vaccine types is important because we do not yet know which of the different vaccine types, if any, will produce a safe and protective response to Covid-19.

“Although this agreement is very good news, we cannot be complacent or overly optimistic.

"The fact remains that we may never get a vaccine, and if we do, we must be prepared that it may not be a vaccine that prevents the virus, but one that alleviates the symptoms. "

The government said nearly 72,000 people volunteered last week to get information about participating in clinical trials to find a vaccine, but many more are needed.

Individuals can register for the NHS Covid-19 vaccine research registry. The ministers hope to win 500,000 people by October.

French President Emmanuel Macron, right, visited a Sanofi Pasteur laboratory last month

French President Emmanuel Macron, right, visited a Sanofi Pasteur laboratory last month

MODERNA'S VACCINE PREVENTS COVID-19 FROM MONKEYS

Moderna's Covid-19 vaccine prevented replication of the coronavirus in monkeys' noses and lungs, a study published yesterday showed.

Two doses of an experimental vaccine from the US company induced robust immune responses and controlled the coronavirus quickly, as results published in the New England Journal of Medicine showed.

It prevented the virus from multiplying in the nose and lungs – which was considered particularly important to prevent it from being spread to others.

The mRNA-1273 vaccine candidate was jointly developed by scientists from the NIAID Vaccine Research Center and Moderna.

In animal studies, three groups of eight rhesus monkeys received either a placebo or the vaccine in two different doses – 10 micrograms and 100 micrograms.

All vaccinated macaques produced high levels of neutralizing antibodies, which were detected in the blood, and those who received high doses produced antibodies in amounts higher than those found in people who had recovered from the disease.

The authors reported that the vaccine also induced the production of another immune cell known as T cells, which may have contributed to the overall response.

Four weeks after the second injection of the monkeys, they were exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus both through the nose and through a tube directly into the lungs.

Remarkably, no replicating virus was detectable in the lungs of seven out of eight macaques after two days in both vaccinated groups.

In addition, none of the eight vaccinated macaques had detectable viruses in their noses two days after virus exposure.

However, all eight animals injected with placebo continued to have replicating viruses in the lungs.

This is the first time that an experimental COVID-19 vaccine that has been tested on non-human primates causes such rapid upper-respiratory virus control, the researchers said.

The results of the animal study published today complement the recently reported phase 1 clinical trial in humans.

Scientists are accelerating the start of a 30,000-person trial later this month to prove that the vaccine is really strong enough to protect against the coronavirus.

The vaccine, manufactured by GSK and Sanofi, which together have the largest vaccine production capacity in the world, is based on existing technology to manufacture Sanofi's seasonal flu vaccine.

Genetic material from the surface protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is inserted into insect cells – the basis for Sanofi's influenza product.

The "spike" protein is what the virus uses to bind to and enter cells in the body and has become the focus of scientific research.

The vaccines aim to prepare the body's immune system for binding to the protein and to deactivate the virus before it settles in the body.

An adjuvant is added to the vaccine – an ingredient that is added to enhance the immune response. This part is manufactured by GSK.

An adjuvant can reduce the amount of vaccine protein required per dose, allowing more doses of vaccine to be made more quickly.

The combination of a protein-based antigen with an adjuvant is well established and is used in a number of vaccines, including shingles and hepatitis B.

Roger Connor, President of GSK Vaccines, said: & # 39; We believe this adjuvant vaccine candidate has the potential to play an important role in overcoming the Covid-19 pandemic both in the UK and around the world.

"We thank the UK government for confirming the intent to purchase, which supports the significant investments that we as a company are already making to increase the development and production of this vaccine."

The science behind the Oxford and Imperial vaccine is also trying to restore the "spike" proteins found everywhere outside of the Covid-19 virus.

Both will try to restore or mimic these tips in the body, but have different ways to achieve this effect.

AstraZeneca, which works in partnership with Oxford University, is already producing a vaccine in the hope that it will work.

Professor Sarah Gilbert, who heads the Oxford team, is confident that the push could be ready for the most vulnerable by the end of the year.

Her comments came after the first phase results, published in The Lancet on July 20, were promising.

When administered to 543 people, the shock was shown to elicit an immune response that lasted at least two months.

The vaccine strengthened two types of immunity – antibodies that are disease-fighting substances; and T cell immunity, where T cells are able to produce antibodies and also attack viruses themselves.

In the meantime, Valneva, the French company that develops a vaccine that is not yet in the clinical trial, is developing a prick based on injecting dead versions of the coronavirus into humans.

This is called an inactivated whole virus vaccine and injects the virus itself, but versions that have been damaged in a laboratory so that they cannot infect human cells.

Kate Bingham, chair of the government's Vaccines Task Force, welcomed the deal

Kate Bingham, chair of the government's Vaccines Task Force, welcomed the deal

Vaccine & # 39; WILL NOT BE READY BEFORE MID 2021 & # 39;

A German minister said on Wednesday that a coronavirus vaccine is not expected to be widely available until mid-next year.

Research Minister Anja Karliczek said at a press conference: "We must continue to assume that vaccines will not be available to the broader population until mid-next year at the earliest."

Germany awarded grants to three biotech companies – BioNtech, CureVac and IDT Biologika – to accelerate the development of coronavirus vaccine candidates.

"All three are promising candidates, but of course we always have to face setbacks during the test phase, because it is one thing to have an effective vaccine but another to have a safe vaccine that people want," said Ms. Karliczek .

Her comments came out of fear that Germany might see a "second wave" of the deadly virus.

Europe's largest economy has reported an increase in infections in recent days. The head of the German Robert Koch Institute (RKI) for infectious diseases blamed negligence and said it was unclear whether a second wave was underway.

"We shouldn't expect a miracle," said Ms. Karliczek, urging people to maintain social distance and mask wear so as not to jeopardize what Germany has achieved in recent weeks to bring the pandemic under control.

They can be damaged by heat, chemicals or radiation.

Although the viruses are inactivated, the body still recognizes them as threats and mounts, as well as an immune response against them that can develop immunity.

The BioNTech vaccine, on the other hand, injects RNA – genetic material – that encodes the body to produce proteins that look like the spike proteins that would be outside the real coronavirus.

Pfizer, the drug giant working with BioNTech, reported positive preliminary results from the ongoing phase I / II clinical trial of its lead candidate BNT162b1 on July 1.

Tests on 24 volunteers showed that it was well tolerated and produced dose-dependent immunity.

Dr. Kathrin Jansen, head of vaccine research and development at Pfizer, said the vaccine "is capable of eliciting neutralizing antibody responses in humans at or above levels seen in Covid-19 survivors."

The US pharmaceutical company Moderna yesterday announced more hopeful animal research results after it found in its studies that humans show signs of immunity.

The company has not yet signed a contract with the UK government, but is poised to study 30,000 people later this month to prove that the vaccine is really strong enough to protect against the coronavirus.

Results published yesterday in the New England Journal of Medicine showed that monkeys given the vaccine had a strong immune response to SARS-CoV-2.

Scientists were unable to find detectable levels of replicating virus in the lungs of seven out of eight macaques in vaccinated groups after being exposed. None of the eight vaccinated macaques had detectable viruses in their noses.

However, all eight animals injected with placebo continued to have a replicating virus in the lungs.

Experts from the Massachusetts-based company said that all human participants in their study had successfully developed both antibodies and T cells.

The vaccine pretends to be infected with Covid-19 and produces immune substances that can destroy it.

Moderna was the first U.S. company to begin testing a novel human coronavirus vaccine on March 16, 66 days after the pathogen's genetic sequence was released.

Russia claims it is on the right track to approve the Covid-19 vaccine in less than two weeks, despite safety concerns

Russia has claimed that despite concerns about its safety and effectiveness, it can approve a coronavirus vaccine in less than two weeks.

It is also unclear whether the country has cut back on the development of the vaccine.

Officials told CNN that they were working to approve the vaccine by August 10 and that frontline healthcare workers would receive it first.

It is being developed at the Gamaleya Institute in Moscow.

The head of the Russian vaccine finance company, Kirill Dmitriev, compared the country's claims that it was about to complete the vaccine with Sputnik – the world's first satellite union, launched in 1957.

Russia has not released scientific data on its vaccine tests and it is impossible to determine whether the alleged vaccine is safe.

Critics said the country's pressure or a vaccine is the result of pressure to make Russia a global scientific force.

There is also great concern that human vaccine testing is incomplete.

According to the CNN, the Russian vaccine has yet to complete its second phase.

Developers plan to complete this phase by August 3 and then run the third test phase simultaneously with the vaccination of medical personnel.

Russian officials say their scientific data will be available for peer review and publication in early August.

Dmitriev said: "Russia has expanded its leadership in vaccine development and its proven Ebola and MERS vaccine platform to find the first safe and efficient solution to the world's biggest problem."

The World Health Organization says there is no approved vaccine for MERS.

WHAT ARE THE LEADING COVID 19 VACCINE CANDIDATES?

Oxford University

Oxford University scientists began developing the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in January. It's now called AZD1222 after the researchers signed a manufacturing partnership with pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca.

Human trials started on April 23 and are currently in their final stages. Trials are being conducted in the UK, Brazil and South Africa.

Project manager Professor Sarah Gilbert told The Times that she was 80 percent convinced of his success.

The science behind Oxford's vaccination attempt depends on restoring the "spike" proteins found everywhere outside of the Covid-19 virus.

It is made from a weakened version of a chimpanzee adenovirus that has been genetically modified so that it cannot grow in humans.

Imperial College London

Fifteen volunteers have already received Imperial's trial, and the tests are expected to increase to 200-300 participants in the coming weeks. A second process with 6,000 people will take place later.

However, Professor Robin Shattock, lead researcher, said the vaccine will not be available until at least 2021, even if everything goes according to plan.

If the push works, the team wants to make it as cheap as possible so that the entire UK population can be vaccinated for the "really good value" of just under £ 200m.

Imperial's vaccine is also trying to mimic the tips on the outside of the Covid-19 virus. However, it will work by delivering genetic material (RNA) from the virus that programs cells in the patient's body to restore the spike proteins.

Pfizer / BioNTech

The American drug giant Pfizer, known for Viagra, and the German company BioNTech have been working on a number of potential Covid-19 vaccines as part of the “BNT162 program”.

Positive preliminary results from the ongoing phase 2/3 clinical trial with BNT162b1 were reported on July 1. Tests on 24 volunteers showed that it was well tolerated and caused dose-dependent immunity.

Dr. Kathrin Jansen, head of vaccine research and development at Pfizer, said the vaccine "is capable of eliciting neutralizing antibody responses in humans at or above levels seen in Covid-19 survivors."

Pfizer received the Fast Track Award from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for two of its four potential Covid-19 vaccines this month.

The vaccine injects RNA – genetic material – that encodes the body to produce proteins that look like the spike proteins that would be outside the real coronavirus.

GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi Pasteur

The vaccine, manufactured by GSK and Sanofi, which together have the largest vaccine production capacity in the world, is based on existing technology to manufacture Sanofi's seasonal flu vaccine.

Genetic material from the surface protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is inserted into insect cells – the basis for Sanofi's influenza product.

The virus uses the "spike" protein to bind to and enter cells in the body. The vaccines aim to prepare the body's immune system for binding to the protein and to deactivate the virus before it settles in the body.

An adjuvant is added to the vaccine – an ingredient that is added to enhance the immune response.

In can reduce the amount of vaccine protein required per dose, which is useful during a pandemic because it can reduce the amount of vaccine protein required per dose, thereby rapidly producing more vaccine doses.

Scientists started producing the vaccine in April. Scientists haven't tested the vaccine on humans yet, and studies to prove it works won't start until September.

Valneva

French company Valneva has not yet started human trials with their Covid-19 vaccine called VLA2001. The company bosses hope to expand the tests by the end of this year.

The prick is currently only in preclinical studies – that is, it is tested in the laboratory and on animals.

If the vaccine has proven successful, it will be manufactured at its plants in Livingston, Scotland and in Solna, Sweden.

Valneva's sting is based on the injection of dead versions of the coronavirus.

This is called an inactivated whole virus vaccine and injects the virus itself, but versions that have been damaged in a laboratory so that they cannot infect human cells. They can be damaged by heat, chemicals or radiation.

Although the viruses are inactivated, the body still recognizes them as threats and mounts, as well as an immune response against them that can develop immunity.

Moderna

Massachusetts-based Moderna was the first U.S. company to begin human trials on March 16 with its potential Covid-19 vaccine, known as mRNA-1273.

According to a study published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine on July 14, the stab triggers an immune response in all 45 injected volunteers.

Moderna's shot showed promising results in his Phase 2 human tests last month. The company reported that it triggered antibody production similar to that seen in recovered coronavirus patients.

CanSino

CanSino's Chinese Ad5-nCoV vaccine was the first vaccine to enter clinical trials earlier this year and is a leading candidate.

A study of 108 healthy volunteers in China showed that it certainly triggered an immune response in the participants.

The results published on May 22nd in The Lancet showed that most of the people who received the vaccine had immune responses, although their antibody levels, which were thought to neutralize the virus, were relatively low. The researchers saw a stronger increase in other immune connections called T cells, which could also help fight the infection.

Johnson & Johnson

The drug giant started working on the vaccine in January, two months before Covid-19 was classified as a global pandemic.

A Johnson and Johnson-led vaccine study will begin recruiting in September. The clinical data will be available at the end of the year.

As early as 2021, an emergency batch of the vaccine is expected to be used, which is likely to be prioritized for vulnerable people.

CureVac

German company CureVac received permission last month to begin clinical trials in the first phase of its trial with a coronavirus vaccine.

The vaccine, called CVnCoV, works with injected RNA, which is said to force the production of coronavirus-like proteins in the body and to trigger an immune response.

The first studies involved 168 people between the ages of 18 and 60 in Germany and Belgium.

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