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The husband and wife behind the covid vaccine that could change the world


Doctors Ugur Sahin and Oezlem Tuereci, who bonded for their love of medical research, are the couple behind the Covid-19 vaccine that could change the world.

Mr. Sahin came from a humble background to start a two billion dollar company but still rides to work on his mountain bike.

Now the "humble" 55-year-old doctor who became the managing director of a German biotech company and his wife Oezlem Tuereci, 53, a board member of BioNTech, are being hailed as the "dream team" behind the world's hopes for a Covid vaccine.

The global race for a Covid-19 vaccine took a leap forward today when pharmaceutical companies Pfizer and BioNTech claimed their effects were 90 percent effective.

Boris Johnson pledged the UK will be at the forefront of the new coronavirus vaccine tonight after the massive breakthrough.

Ugur Sahin pictured above came from a humble background to start two billion dollar businesses but still rides to work on his mountain bike.

Oezlem Tuereci, 53, is a board member of BioNTech. She is the daughter of a Turkish doctor who emigrated to Germany

Oezlem Tuereci, 53, is a board member of BioNTech. She is the daughter of a Turkish doctor who emigrated to Germany

A volunteer in a vaccine study in Turkey will receive a dose of Pfizer and BioNTech in late October

A volunteer in a vaccine study in Turkey will receive a dose of Pfizer and BioNTech in late October

Born in Turkey, Sahin grew up in Germany, where his parents worked in a Ford factory. As a trained doctor, Mr. Sahin became a professor and researcher specializing in immunotherapy.

He worked in teaching hospitals in Cologne and in the southwest of Homburg, where he met the immunologist Miss Tuereci during his early academic career. Medical research and oncology became a shared passion.

Ms. Tuereci, the daughter of a Turkish doctor who emigrated to Germany, once said in an interview that both of them had time for laboratory work even on their wedding day.

Together, they sharpened the immune system as a potential ally in the fight against cancer and tried to study the unique genetic makeup of each tumor.

Life as an entrepreneur began in 2001 when they founded Ganymed Pharmaceuticals to develop cancer-fighting antibodies, but Mr. Sahin – until then a professor at the University of Mainz – never gave up academic research and teaching. Ganynmed was sold to Japan's Astellas for $ 1.4 billion in 2016.

Mr. Sahin and Ms. Tuereci co-founded BioNTech in 2008 with the aim of pursuing a much wider range of cancer immunotherapy tools. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has invested $ 55 million in the company, which also works on HIV and tuberculosis programs.

Colleagues describe Mr. Sahin as a calm and measured man who avoids checking the company's share price and who is more interested in reading scientific journals.

As a trained doctor, Mr. Sahin became a professor and researcher specializing in immunotherapy

As a trained doctor, Mr. Sahin became a professor and researcher specializing in immunotherapy

Pfizer and BioNTech have produced one of the world's leading candidates for a coronavirus vaccine and are the first to publish the results of their final study

Pfizer and BioNTech have produced one of the world's leading candidates for a coronavirus vaccine and are the first to publish the results of their final study

According to the German newspaper Welt am Sonntag, he and his wife are among the 100 richest Germans.

Matthias Kromayer, member of the board of the venture capital company MIG AG, whose funds have supported BioNTech, said: "Despite his successes, he has never changed from an incredibly humble and personable personality."

He added that Mr. Sahin usually went to business meetings in jeans and carried his signature bicycle helmet and backpack.

Matthias Theobald, Professor of Oncology at the University of Mainz, who has been working with Mr. Sahin for 20 years, said: “He is a very humble person. Appearance means little to him. But he would like to create the structures that will enable him to realize his visions, and there his efforts are anything but modest. & # 39;

According to the German newspaper Welt am Sonntag, Mr. Sahin and his wife are among the 100 richest Germans

According to the German newspaper Welt am Sonntag, Mr. Sahin and his wife are among the 100 richest Germans

Today's prime minister tried to cool hopes of an early end to the lockdown after Pfizer and BioNTech announced that initial results from a massive clinical trial suggest nine out of ten people who receive their bump will be safe from it.

The UK could receive 10 million doses of coronavirus vaccine by Christmas, with experts raising expectations that life could be "normal" again by spring.

The FTSE 100 index is on its way to its best day since March. Shares in airlines and hotel companies have increased globally – although Zoom has seen a decline in value.

At a press conference tonight, Boris Johnson said Britain was "at the forefront" to get the critical shocks.

However, he warned that the biggest mistake the country could make now is "loosening our resolve". "Now it's more important than ever to obey the rules," he said.

Mr Johnson referred to his earlier comments about the "distant scientific cavalry bugle coming over the forehead of the hill" to save the day.

"I can tell you the honking is louder tonight, but it is still a long way off. We absolutely cannot rely on this message as a solution," he said.

"The biggest mistake we could make now would be to loosen our resolve at a critical moment."

Boris Johnson (pictured at a press conference tonight) briefed the public on the bullish news but warned the country could not "ease" the urge to fight the virus

Boris Johnson (pictured at a press conference tonight) briefed the public on the bullish news but warned the country could not "ease" the urge to fight the virus

He added, "I'm afraid it's a long way to go before we beat this thing."

Deputy Chief Medical Officer Jonathan Van-Tam was excited about Pfizer's announcement, saying it bodes well for other study vaccines as they used the same broad approach.

But he also warned that "a swallow" does not make summer and that there could not yet be any relaxation of social distancing measures.

MailOnline expects safety and efficacy data to be available from Oxford University and AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine to be released next week. This means that the actual approval process for the trick could begin weeks before Pfizer.

STOCK MARKETS RISE ON VACCINE HOP

Global equity markets hoped for an end to the coronavirus crisis today after vaccine news was released.

In the US, Dow and S & P achieved a clear result after the election and set new records after opening 5.3 percent and 3.6 percent respectively.

New York-listed Pfizer stock rose more than 8 percent.

At some companies that did well during the panic, such as B. Zoom, however, the values ​​have decreased.

The FTSE 100 index rose by more than 5.5 percent compared to the successful studies.

The UK FTSE index rose more than five percent in the news, its highest level since August

This was the highest level since mid-August, while other markets around the world also recorded strong growth.

The IAG airline group grew 35 percent, while Rolls Royce saw a 30 percent increase.

Movie theater and hotel chains also received a massive boost as investors digested the bullish signs.

In Europe, the French CAC 40 rose 5.6 percent to 5,239, while the German DAX rose 5.1 percent to 13,112.

The Pfizer chairman hailed the breakthrough as a "big day for science and humanity" while independent experts said the results were "excellent" and "really impressive".

However, controversy is brewing in America over the timing of the announcement, and supporters of Donald Trump raise suspicions that they were held back until after the knife elections – which the company denies. The company originally announced that it would learn the results of its trial in October.

Pfizer and BioNTech are expected to apply for approval to have the engraving in the US as soon as possible. However, you will have to wait for the long-term security data to be complete. There are also concerns about the logistical challenges involved in distributing large numbers of cans that must be stored at around minus 70 degrees Celsius.

The vaccine is one of at least seven vaccines that have already been pre-ordered by the UK. The push has to be given in two installments, so theoretically the 10 million due in the UK before Christmas means five million people could get it

Pfizer and German partner BioNTech are the first drug manufacturers to show successful data from a large-scale clinical trial with a coronavirus vaccine.

They said 94 people have tested positive for Covid-19 in a study of more than 43,000 so far and that over 90 percent of those polled did not receive a real vaccine.

You were in the placebo group where people are given a fake vaccine so what happens to them can be compared to those who get the real thing. Pfizer's study split the participants half into placebo and half vaccine groups.

Companies haven't released the exact number, but a 90 percent effectiveness rate suggests that no more than eight people who received the vaccine infected the virus, compared to 86 people who received a fake sting.

Before the vaccine can be administered to millions of Britons, it must first be approved by the regulator – the MHRA – which has already started an ongoing review of all the data so it can quickly follow up the process when the drug giant finally submits it for approval .

Health chiefs have repeatedly admitted that it is possible for the UK to get their hands on a vaccine before Christmas, and proving that the vaccine is safe remains the only hurdle. Regulators must have two months worth of data from thousands of injected volunteers.

Pfizer's next move is expected to be in the US to apply for an emergency permit, which they'll need to contact the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for once they have two months of safety data – expected to be complete at the end of month.

The pharmaceutical company made no mention of having applied for UK or European approval when the results were released, but it is likely that all data will be submitted at the same time.

At the press conference tonight, Professor Van-Tam described the vaccine announcement as a "major milestone" and said it was good news for other future vaccines.

He said, “So it's like… reaching the end of the playoff finals, going to penalties, the first player moving up and scoring a goal.

"You haven't won the trophy yet, but it tells you the goalkeeper can be beaten."

But Prof. Van-Tam said we don't yet know when life can return to normal or when the coronavirus restrictions can be lifted.

"Honestly, we are in the middle of the second wave and I don't see any difference between the vaccine and the wave we are in right now," he said.

"I'm confident it can prevent future waves, but we have to fight these to the end without a vaccine."

The UK's assistant chief physician, Professor Jonathan Van-Tam, said he was "hopeful" that the first coronavirus vaccine could be seen by Christmas.

Pro Van-Tam said there was more work to be done before it became available and it was up to the independent regulator to clear it for use in the UK.

& # 39; This is a very important scientific breakthrough. I'm sure of it, ”he said.

Trump's allies cry ill over the timing of the vaccine as he greets "great news".

Donald Trump's allies have expressed doubts about the timing of Pfizer's Covid vaccine announcement for Covid, just 24 hours after Joe Biden was named presidential election winner.

Son Trump Jr. posted a tweet suggesting the timing was "shameful" while Senator Ted Cruz, a close ally of Trump, asked his followers, "Why now?"

& # 39; The timing is pretty amazing. Nothing shameful about the timing, right? & # 39; Trump Jr tweeted.

The vaccine was announced on the first working day after Joe Biden was named president-elect on Saturday.

Pfizer originally announced it would hear the results of its trial in October, but postponed the announcement until the third week of November before being announced today.

President Trump had repeatedly suggested that a vaccine would be ready before the election and touted Pfizer as a leading candidate.

Albert Bourla told the New York Times today that in the run-up to the election, Trump urged him to know when a vaccine would be ready.

"Every time I talked to the President, I told him not to worry that we would compromise safety or effectiveness, but that we would do it as quickly as science allows," he said.

Kathrin Jansen, senior vice president at Pfizer and head of vaccine research and development, also tried to distance vaccine results from politics by insisting that the timing of the trial results was not tied to the election.

She told the New York Times – in an interview published shortly after the announcement – that she learned of the results shortly after 1 p.m. on Sunday – a little over 24 hours after Biden was declared the winner.

Bourla told the New York Times today that in the run-up to the election, Trump urged him to know when a vaccine would be ready

Bourla told the New York Times today that in the run-up to the election, Trump urged him to know when a vaccine would be ready

The company announced today that the vaccine has been shown to be 90 percent effective in widespread studies, increasing the chances that the doses could be ready for the public by the end of the year.

No explanation was given for the delay in getting the data.

Announcing a possible vaccine would have been good news for Trump, who was pounded on the campaign trail by Biden for his coronavirus response.

Trump, who was declared the loser in the election but refused to admit, tweeted his excitement when the news was released on Monday.

& # 39; STOCK MARKET BIG, VACCINE COMING SOON. REPORT 90% EFFECTIVE. SO BIG NEWS, ”he tweeted.

Trump questions the election result, claiming – without evidence – that "massive election fraud" means Joe Biden "stole" his victory.

Dr. Albert Bourla told staff a month ago that he was disappointed that his work had been politicized during a presidential debate and tried to reassure U.S. workers that the company would not bow to pressure to act faster than safe.

Although senior U.S. federal health officials have repeatedly stated that a vaccine is unlikely to be widely available until 2021, President Trump insisted that a vaccine would be ready before election day, November 3.

During the debate with eventual winner Joe Biden, Trump said he spoke to Pfizer and other companies whose experimental vaccines are the most advanced in testing.

“I've talked to Pfizer, I've talked to all of the people you need to talk to, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson and others. You can go much faster, ”he claimed. "It has become very political."

"I'm hopeful about it, but I'm not sure we can see a vaccine by Christmas."

He said age is by far the most important factor in determining who should get the vaccine first.

Prof. Van-Tam also warned that "the only thing we know about these vaccines right now is that they prevent disease" from Covid-19 as diagnosed by a PCR test.

& # 39; We don't yet know if these vaccines will prevent asymptomatic infection.

"And so we don't know if these vaccines will prevent the virus from shedding and thus affect its community transmission."

He said more work was needed to know whether vaccines can only "modify disease" or whether they can also prevent transmission.

Ministers have announced that residents and staff at the nursing home will be the first to get the sting, followed by those over 80 and NHS staff. Physios and paramedics are being trained to deliver covid bumps so the NHS can run its mass vaccination program over the winter.

Kate Bingham, head of the UK's Coronavirus Vaccines Task Force, said earlier this month that 10 million doses of Pfizer's shock could be available in the UK by January.

In an interview with CNBC today, Pfizer Chairman and CEO Albert Bourla welcomed "Light at the end of the tunnel".

"The hopes of billions of people and millions of businesses and hundreds of governments that have been felt on our shoulders, now we can see light at the end of the tunnel," he said.

The cans will be phased in and production will increase "significantly" by the middle of next year.

& # 39; We started manufacturing some time ago. We believe we will have 50 million this year and 1.3 billion next year. This will come gradually; less in the beginning, then more in the first quarter, more in the second quarter, and then we will see a significant increase in the second half of the year.

& # 39; Given how effective it is, we understand that demand will be much higher than anything we can produce.

& # 39; We are currently also thinking outside the box as to whether there are other ways to increase production capacity even further. Currently 1,000 people die every day in the United States. There is no time to waste here. & # 39;

Dr. Bourla went on to say that he hopes other drug companies are just as effective with their own vaccines and that "the only competitor is virus and time".

The US government's leading infectious disease expert Anthony Fauci said the results were "just extraordinary" and suggested that other vaccines had good prospects because they used the same approach.

"Not very many people expected it to be that high," he said. "It will have a huge impact on everything we do about COVID."

UK chief doctor Chris Whitty said this was "cause for optimism in 2021" but warned that the country must continue to "suppress" the coronavirus.

"Preliminary news that the Pfizer / BioNTech vaccine is effective shows the power of science against COVID," he tweeted. & # 39; We need to see the final safety and effectiveness data, but it's very encouraging. It is important that we continue to suppress COVID, but it is cause for optimism for 2021. & # 39;

Downing Street said: & # 39; The results are promising and while we are optimistic about a breakthrough we need to remember that there are no guarantees.

“We will know if the vaccine is both safe and effective once the safety data is published, and only then can the regulatory authorities consider making it available to the public.

"In the meantime, the NHS stands ready to launch a vaccination program for the most vulnerable as soon as a Covid-19 vaccine is available before it is rolled out on a larger scale."

Nicola Sturgeon said it was "positive news". "There is a good way to go, of course, but this is news that should give all of us tentative hope today and let's face it, we could all do something with it," she said of her daily meeting.

Mr Drakeford said at a separate press conference: "I will not be tempted to suggest that somehow this means that there is a magic bullet on the horizon and that the coronavirus will soon go away."

US President-elect Joe Biden, who said he received the announcement in advance last night, greeted it cautiously but suggested that the end of the fight against the virus was "months away".

"I congratulate the brilliant women and men who contributed to this breakthrough and who give us cause for hope," he said.

"At the same time, it's important to understand that the end of the fight against COVID-19 is months away," he added.

Mr Biden stressed that it was still crucial to wear face masks for the foreseeable future.

Donald Trump tweeted "such great news" as stock markets rose.

However, the announcement was met with skepticism by Trump's allies, including son Donald Jr. and Senator Ted Cruz, who suggested the timing was "shameful".

& # 39; The timing for this is pretty amazing. Nothing shameful about the timing, right? & # 39; Trump Jr tweeted. & # 39; Why now? & # 39; Mr. Cruz added.

Dr. Bourla had previously said the company would know if its vaccine is safe by October, ahead of the presidential election.

Kathrin Jansen said the company received the security data on Sunday, just 24 hours after the Joe Biden election was scheduled.

No explanation was given for the delay. Mr Trump had previously claimed that a vaccine would be ready by October and touted Pfizer as a leading candidate.

Mr Trump was declared the loser in the November 3rd election after Mr Biden overturned much of his election night leads as the postal vote was counted.

But the Republican refused to admit and questions the outcome, claiming – without producing any evidence – that widespread electoral fraud meant that Mr Biden "stole" the election.

Scientists said today's news marks a breakthrough in the global race to develop a sting to stop the pandemic.

Sir John Bell, Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford University and a member of the government's vaccine task force, said other vaccines are expected to be available in the near future.

“I am very pleased with this result – it shows that you can make a vaccine against this small animal. Ninety percent is an amazing level of effectiveness, ”he told BBC Radio 4's The World at One.

"It's the cornerstone of other vaccines because now I see no reason why we shouldn't have a handful of good vaccines."

Sir John said organizing the distribution of the vaccine was "challenging" but the UK was well placed to benefit once it became available.

"You will obviously start in the US – that is probably appropriate," he said.

& # 39; BioNTech is a German company, so cans will be available for Europe for sure.

& # 39; The UK has a pre-authorization agreement to purchase up to 30 million doses of this vaccine. We are therefore very well prepared to have access to this vaccine as soon as it becomes available.

"The challenges in manufacturing are not small, so people have to be willing to wait a bit to get it."

Sir John said he was "confident" that life would be back to normal by spring. & # 39; yes yes yes yes. I'll probably be the first to say this, but I will say this with some confidence, ”he told BBC Radio 4's World at One.

Pfizer and BioNTech's vaccine is one of many in the final stages of clinical trials. The UK's front runner from Oxford University and AstraZeneca is expected to see results in a matter of weeks.

Who comes first for a COVID Vaccine?

Nursing home residents and employees could come first with any regulatory-approved Covid-19 vaccine.

Vaccine experts advising the government previously published a detailed list of who should receive a Covid-19 bump first.

The government has sourced 40 million doses of the vaccine from Pfizer / BioNTech, with 10 million doses manufactured and available to the UK by the end of the year – provided the vaccine is regulatory cleared.

This affects 20 million people because the vaccine requires two doses.

The Joint Vaccination and Immunization Committee (JCVI) said nursing home residents and staff are among those who should be given the sting first.

Prioritization for other people depends on their age and risk.

The committee looked at data on who is worst with coronavirus and who is at greatest risk of death.

The preliminary guidelines state that the order of priority should be as follows:

· Older adults in a nursing home and nursing home workers

· All over 80s and health and social workers

· Can move the list up

· Anyone who is 75 years or older

· People over 70 years of age

· Everyone over 65 years of age

· High risk adults under 65 years of age

· Medium risk adults under 65 years of age

· Everyone aged 60 and over

· Everyone aged 55 and over

· Everyone aged 50 and over

· The rest of the population with priority yet to be determined.

However, the JCVI stressed that this list "was not considered definitive" as more data on risk groups is still being collected.

Drug giant AstraZeneca, which owns the rights to the vaccine, confirmed last week that it expects data on the effectiveness of the experimental sting this month.

Extensive clinical studies are ongoing with the vaccine worldwide. Tens of thousands of people are being recruited in the UK, Brazil, South Africa and the USA.

The results will then be reviewed by the UK Health Authority, MHRA, which will then decide whether it can be rolled out for use in the wider community. The NHS is ready to give a Covid-19 vaccine as early as December if one turns out to work, health officials have promised.

Frühe Versuche mit Oxfords Stich zeigten, dass es bei Menschen, die es erhielten, erfolgreich eine Reaktion des Immunsystems hervorrief und dass es kurzfristig sicher zu sein schien.

Dr. Paul Hunter, Experte für Medizin und Infektionskrankheiten an der University of East Anglia, sagte gegenüber MailOnline: „Wenn es letztendlich hält, ist das ein bemerkenswert gutes Ergebnis.

„Es ist natürlich immer eine große Frage, wie lange es dauern wird. Möglicherweise müssen Sie jedes Jahr neu aufladen, wir wissen es nicht. Es könnte alles noch birnenförmig werden.

"Vorausgesetzt, wir bekommen diesen Impfstoff und er wird wie geplant geliefert, wird er innerhalb weniger Monate einen großen Unterschied machen."

Zu der Frage, ob der Stoß trotz vielversprechender früher Ergebnisse immer noch scheitern könnte, fügte er hinzu: „Es ist immer eine Möglichkeit. Meistens stimmen die Endergebnisse mit den Zwischenergebnissen überein, aber Sie können dies nicht garantieren.

„Ich freue mich sehr über dieses Ergebnis. Sie können fast anfangen, das Licht am Ende des Tunnels zu sehen. Ich hoffe nur, dass es kein entgegenkommender Zug ist. & # 39;

Wissenschaftler in ganz Großbritannien haben gesagt, dass die Ergebnisse Anlass zu Optimismus geben, aber immer noch nur frühe Anzeichen sind. Daher ist es wichtig, sich nicht mitreißen zu lassen.

Der Professor der Universität Oxford, Peter Horby, der das Team leitete, das bewies, dass das Steroid Dexamethason sterbende Coronavirus-Patienten retten kann, sagte: „Diese Nachricht brachte mich von Ohr zu Ohr zum Lächeln.

'Es ist eine Erleichterung, solch positive Ergebnisse bei diesem Impfstoff zu sehen, und es ist ein gutes Zeichen für Covid-19-Impfstoffe im Allgemeinen. Natürlich müssen wir mehr Details sehen und auf die endgültigen Ergebnisse warten, und es ist noch ein langer Weg, bis Impfstoffe einen echten Unterschied bewirken, aber das fühlt sich für mich wie ein Wendepunkt an. & # 39;

David Nabarro, Co-Direktor des Instituts für globale Gesundheitsinnovation des Imperial College London, sagte, "jede vielversprechende Nachricht über einen Impfstoff ist eine gute Nachricht", warnte jedoch davor, dass noch ein weiter Weg vor uns liegt.

Er sagte der BBC: "Jeder, der dies hört und sieht, wird sagen:" Wow, bedeutet das, dass das Leben in naher Zukunft wieder normal werden kann? "

„Das Leben wird zu einer neuen Normalität zurückkehren, und wir sind noch nicht da.

„Wir müssen alle Grundregeln einhalten, von denen wir jetzt wissen, dass sie für den Umgang mit diesem Virus wichtig sind – unser eigenes Verhalten, die Art und Weise, wie Regierungen ihre Gesundheitssysteme betreiben, und auch die Einheit zwischen den Nationen.

„Und ich möchte nur betonen, dass diese Prinzipien, für die wir in den letzten 10 Monaten gearbeitet haben, immer noch absolut notwendig sind.

„Selbst wenn in naher Zukunft ein Impfstoff auf den Markt kommt, müssen wir uns noch viele Monate lang mit dem Virus als ständiger Bedrohung auseinandersetzen. Wir müssen sicherstellen, dass wir weiterhin alles tun, um das Virus zu lösen, das große Probleme verursacht .

"Der Impfstoff wird helfen, aber es wird kein kompletter Game Changer sein."

Der stellvertretende Chefarzt Jonathan Van-Tam äußerte sich aufgeregt über die Ankündigung von Pfizer und sagte, sie sei gut für andere Testimpfstoffe geeignet, da sie denselben breiten Ansatz verwendeten und auf die Spike-Proteine ​​des Virus abzielten, mit denen es in Zellen eindringt

Der stellvertretende Chefarzt Jonathan Van-Tam äußerte sich aufgeregt über die Ankündigung von Pfizer und sagte, sie sei gut für andere Studienimpfstoffe geeignet, da sie denselben breiten Ansatz verwendeten und auf die Spike-Proteine ​​des Virus abzielten, mit denen es in Zellen eindringt

Chris Whitty, Chief Medical Officer, warnte, es sei wichtig, dass das Land COVID weiterhin "unterdrückt", obwohl die Impfstoffnachrichten ein "Grund für Optimismus für 2021" seien.

Chris Whitty, Chief Medical Officer, warnte, es sei wichtig, dass das Land COVID weiterhin "unterdrückt", obwohl die Impfstoffnachrichten ein "Grund für Optimismus für 2021" seien.

WER ERHÄLT DEN IMPFSTOFF ZUERST IN GROSSBRITANNIEN? UND WIE WIRD ES VERWALTET?

WER IST ERSTER IN DER LINIE?

Bewohner und Mitarbeiter von Pflegeheimen werden nach einer Ende September veröffentlichten Regierungsempfehlung als erste einen Covid-19-Impfstoff erhalten, wenn einer zugelassen wird.

Alle über 80-Jährigen und NHS-Mitarbeiter werden an zweiter Stelle stehen, heißt es in den Leitlinien des Gemischten Ausschusses für Impfung und Immunisierung.

Die über 75-Jährigen stehen als nächstes in der Warteschlange, gefolgt von über 70-Jährigen, über 65-Jährigen und Erwachsenen mit hohem Risiko unter 65 Jahren mit Krankheiten wie Krebs.

Ihnen folgen Erwachsene mit mittlerem Risiko unter 65 Jahren – einschließlich Diabetikern und Asthmatikern.

Als nächstes folgen über 60-Jährige, über 55-Jährige und über 50-Jährige als letzte Prioritätsgruppen.

The general population will be last to get their hands on a vaccine and they will most likely be prioritised based on age or underlying conditions.

HOW WILL IT BE ADMINISTERED?

Physios and paramedics will be trained to deliver Covid-19 jabs to help the NHS carry out its mass vaccination programme through the winter.

Currently, only doctors, pharmacists and some nurses are legally allowed to administer vaccines in the UK.

But new laws passed in October grant more health workers – including midwives and even medical students – to be able to inoculate members of the public.

They are currently being put through 'robust training' according to the Government, which it says will 'save thousands of lives by increasing access to vaccines against killer disease'.

HOW MANY DOSES WILL BE READY?

Kate Bingham, chairwoman of the government's vaccine task force, said a Covid-19 jab had the 'possibility of being ready before the end of the year'.

But she warned that only four million doses of the Oxford vaccine would be manufactured by Christmas – with ten million doses of the Pfizer vaccine potentially being available by January.

It means, at the absolute most, only 14 million Brits will have been vaccinated by Christmas.

Though the researchers behind Oxford's jab say there's only a very 'small chance' theirs will be ready by then.

HOW DOES THE VACCINE WORK?

The jab is known as a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine, which uses genetic code from the virus to provoke the immune system.

The jab is made of lab-generated genetic material that is then injected inside a fatty molecule. The genes are specifically chosen to code for the 'spike' protein on the outside of the coronavirus.

When they get into the body, the body makes its own copies of the spike and triggers the immune system in the same way – although milder – that the real virus would.

In the process the immune system learns how to recognise and destroy the spikes so that when it encounters them for real it can kill the virus before it causes Covid-19.

IS THE VACCINE SAFE?

All vaccines undergo rigorous testing and have oversight from experienced regulators.

Some believe mRNA vaccines are safer for the patient as they do not rely on any element of the virus being injected into the body.

mRNA vaccines have been tried and tested in the lab and on animals but the coronavirus vaccine will be the first one licensed for use in humans.

The human trials of mRNA vaccines – involving tens of thousands of people – have been going on since early 2020 to show whether it is safe and effective.

Pfizer will continue to collect safety and long-term outcomes data from participants for two years. There are currently around 43,000 people enrolled in the trial of this Covid vaccine, half of whom have had the real jab.

Professor Brendan Wren, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, said: 'A 90 per cent efficacy for a phase 3 trial is excellent for a new vaccine that could make a huge difference, but more confirmatory safety and efficacy studies are required.

'The RNA-based vaccine requires two doses and its true efficacy over a longer period of time remains to be evaluated. These are encouraging results and it is a case of so far so good.'

Professor Eleanor Riley, an immunology and infectious disease expert at the  University of Edinburgh, added: 'At face value, this is exceptionally good news: a vaccine that is 90 per cent effective at preventing symptomatic cases of Covid-19 and with millions of doses available by the end of the year.

'However, the full data set on which the claim is based has not yet been released and so we don't know exactly what has been found.

'The two companies are at pains to point out that the trial participants are ethnically diverse, which is good, but say nothing about the age of people in the trial. If a vaccine is to reduce severe disease and death, and thus enable the population at large to return to their normal day-to-day lives, it will need to be effective in older and elderly members of our society.

'We also know nothing yet about the severity of cases that were seen in the trial, whether infection or infectiousness was prevented, or how long the immunity is expected to last.

'But I think we have reason to be cautiously optimistic.'

Dr Michael Head, senior research fellow in global health, University of Southampton, told ITV the results appear 'excellent' but he urged caution.

'This cautiously sounds like an excellent result from the phase three trials, but we should remain a little cautious,' he said.

But he warned that if the vaccine is now approved for use by regulators there could still be serious logistical difficulties.

'If this Pfizer vaccine candidate is licensed, there will be difficulties around logistics and distribution,' Dr Head added.

'It has been reported that the vaccine requires storage at -70 degrees centigrade and that is not necessarily routinely available in most health centres even in the UK, let alone globally.'

Optimism was the reaction of the stock markets when the news broke, with the UK's FTSE surging to its highest level since August and some companies seeing boosts of more than a third.

Global stock markets surged on hopes of an end to the coronavirus crisis today after the vaccine news broke.

In the US, already on a high after the election delivered a clear result, the Dow and the S&P hit new records after opening up 5.3 per cent and 3.6 per cent.

Pfizer shares, listed in New York, saw a bump of more than 8 per cent.

However, some companies that have fared well during the panic – such as Zoom – saw their values fall.

The FTSE 100 index was up more than 5.5 per cent on the successful trials.

Airline group IAG was up 35 per cent, while Rolls Royce saw a 30 per cent spike.

Cinema and hotel chains also received a massive boost as investors digested the optimistic signs.

In Europe, France's CAC 40 jumped 5.6 per cent to 5,239, while Germany's DAX surged 5.1 per cent to 13,112.

Pfizer and BioNTech said they have so far found no serious safety concerns and expect to seek US emergency use authorization later this month.

If authorized, the number of vaccine doses will initially be limited. Many questions also remain including how long the vaccine will provide protection.

However, the news provides hope that other vaccines in development against the novel coronavirus may also prove effective.

'Today is a great day for science and humanity,' said Dr Bourla in a statement.

'We are reaching this critical milestone in our vaccine development program at a time when the world needs it most with infection rates setting new records, hospitals nearing over-capacity and economies struggling to reopen.'

Pfizer expects to seek broad US emergency use authorization of the vaccine for people aged 16 to 85.

To do so, it will need to have collected two months of safety data on around half of the study's roughly 44,000 participants, which is expected to be completed in late November.

'I'm near ecstatic,' said Dr Bill Gruber, one of Pfizer's top vaccine scientists. 'This is a great day for public health and for the potential to get us all out of the circumstances we're now in.'

The efficacy rate is well above the 50 per cent effectiveness required by the US Food and Drug Administration for a coronavirus vaccine.

To confirm its efficacy rate, Pfizer said it will continue the trial until there are 164 Covid-19 cases among participants. Given the recent spike in US infection rates, that number could be reached by early December, Dr Gruber said.

The data have yet to be peer-reviewed or published in a medical journal. Pfizer said it would do so once it has results from the entire trial.

Pfizer and BioNTech have a $1.95billion (£1.45m) contract with the US government to deliver 100 million vaccine doses beginning this year. They have also reached supply agreements with the European Union, the UK, Canada and Japan.

To save time, the companies began manufacturing the vaccine before they knew whether it would be effective, and they now expect to produce up to 50million doses, or enough vaccine to protect 25million people, this year.

Pictured is the first patient to have received the Pfizer vaccine, at the University of Maryland in May this year. Since then, more than 43,000 people have been enrolled in the ground-breaking trial

Pictured is the first patient to have received the Pfizer vaccine, at the University of Maryland in May this year. Since then, more than 43,000 people have been enrolled in the ground-breaking trial

PFIZER'S COVID-19 VACCINE TIMELINE AT A GLANCE

17. März: Pfizer and Germany firm BioNTech announce they are co-developing a Covid-19 vaccine.

The companies team up after previous collaborations on flu jabs.

13. Juli: Their vaccine is granted fast-track status by the FDA.

It gives regulators in the US the ability to review data from studies into the jab in real time, so it can be approved and rolled out quicker.

20. Juli: Phase one trial on 12 adults show the vaccine stimulates antibody response.

July 27: Phase two trial is launched in a much larger group of people and compared to a placebo to see if the jab is safe.

12. August: Results from the study of 45 adults find the jab is well tolerated with few side effects and stimulates the immune response thought to be needed to fend off Covid-19 infection.

Mid-August: Phase three trials are launched in the US. These trials see researchers administer the jab then wait to see if people get infected naturally in the community.

September 12: Phase three trials are expanded to include 44,000 people at more than 120 clinical sites across the US, Brazil, South Africa and Argentina.

October 6: The European Medicines Agency agrees to initiate a rolling review, which the FDA had done months earlier.

30. Oktober: The UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) also undertakes rolling review. It opens the door for the US, UK and Europe to get doses by the end of 2020.

November 9: Early results from phase three suggest nine out of 10 people who get their jab are protected by it.

Sometime in December: Full results from the phase three trials are expected. This will paint a clearer picture about how effective the jab will be.

December 25: Kate Bingham, head of the UK's Vaccine Taskforce, has said Britain could have 10million doses of Pfizer's jab ready to be rolled out by Christmas.

Pfizer said it expects to produce up to 1.3billion doses of the vaccine in 2021.

The vaccine uses messenger RNA (mRNA) technology, which relies on synthetic genes that can be generated and manufactured in weeks, and produced at scale more rapidly than conventional vaccines.

Moderna Inc, whose vaccine candidate employs similar technology, is expected to report results from its large-scale trial later this month. The mRNA technology is designed to trigger an immune response without using pathogens, such as actual virus particles.

Pfizer alone will not have the capacity to immediately provide enough vaccines for the entire United States. The Trump administration has said it will have enough supply for all of the 330million U.S. residents who wish to be vaccinated by the middle of 2021.

Meanwhile, Tories are urging an end the blanket lockdown before December 2 amid claims Boris Johnson believes he was bounced into the extreme curbs.

Senior MPs said the PM should not keep the restrictions in place for the full month just to 'maximise the pain', amid early signs that the surge is already levelling out.

Mr Johnson reluctantly signed off the measures for England last weekend after being warned by Government scientists that deaths could rise to 4,000 a day – four times the peak seen in April.

The decision was rushed out with minimal Cabinet consultation after news of the warning, and the PM's reaction to it, was leaked to news organisations, including the Daily Mail.

However, the 4,000-a-day figure has since been widely discredited and Government scientists have been forced to correct other dire warnings used to inform the lockdown decision.

Some data last week suggested that the second wave may have levelled off or even peaked before the lockdown was introduced last Thursday.

Yesterday another 156 Covid deaths were reported across the UK, down from 162 a week earlier.

Some 20,572 cases were recorded, a fall of 2,682 on the previous Sunday's total of 23,254.

One Cabinet minister told the Daily Mail that Mr Johnson felt he had been pushed into the decision.

'I think he is concerned that he may have been bounced into it,' the source said.

'He was really, really cross about the leak because at that point a different decision might still have been made.

'There is also concern that some of the information used to inform the decision now seems to be crumbling.

'In fact the figures seem to be suggesting things were getting better before the lockdown began – we are being shut down for a month when we did not need to be.'

The source predicted the episode would harden the PM's attitude against any attempt to renew the restrictions.

'It means a third or fourth lockdown is very unlikely,' the source said. 'All of this goes against his political inclinations.'

Downing Street last night denied that the PM felt he had been bounced into the lockdown.

A Government source said: 'It is true that we were furious about the leak, but the PM is absolutely clear that the evidence showed these measures were necessary.

'Even if you put the 4,000 figure to one side, there was plenty of other very concerning data, such as the hospitalisation figures, that made it very clear he had to act.'

Tories urge early end to lockdown amid claims PM furious at being 'bounced'

Tories are urging an end the blanket lockdown before December 2 amid claims Boris Johnson believes he was bounced into the extreme curbs.

Senior MPs said the PM should not keep the restrictions in place for the full month just to 'maximise the pain', amid early signs that the surge is already levelling out.

Mr Johnson reluctantly signed off the measures for England last weekend after being warned by Government scientists that deaths could rise to 4,000 a day – four times the peak seen in April.

The decision was rushed out with minimal Cabinet consultation after news of the warning, and the PM's reaction to it, was leaked to news organisations, including the Daily Mail.

However, the 4,000-a-day figure has since been widely discredited and Government scientists have been forced to correct other dire warnings used to inform the lockdown decision.

Some data last week suggested that the second wave may have levelled off or even peaked before the lockdown was introduced last Thursday.

Yesterday another 156 Covid deaths were reported across the UK, down from 162 a week earlier.

Some 20,572 cases were recorded, a fall of 2,682 on the previous Sunday's total of 23,254.

But Tory MPs seized on the claim to demand an early end to the draconian restrictions.

Tory former minister Sir Desmond Swayne told MailOnline that carrying out a U-turn should not be a problem, given recent rethinks on free school meals and other issues.

'We've not shown any reluctance to just reverse decisions that we thought were wrong in the recent past,' the MP said.

'If we think that the wrong decision has been made then clearly it should be reversed as soon as possible. The less damage done the better. No point in hanging on for the full month just to maximise the pain.

'Particularly when all the signs are starting to show that actually according to the data we have already turned the corner.'

Another senior MP warned that calls for a shortening would become irresistible if the trend in infections continued.

'One thing is certain, and that's if the decline continues the government should be looking at relaxing the restrictions earlier than December 2,' they said.

'The economy cannot remain frozen like this.'

Fifty Tory MPs rebelled on the lockdown legislation and rebel sources believe the revolt could top 100 if there is any attempt to extend it.

The PM has publicly stated that it will 'expire' on December 2, with England then reverting to a system of regional restrictions.

In another front of the battle, Sir Keir Starmer today demanded a rethink on the 10pm pubs curfew after the lockdown ends in England, insisting it had not worked'.

The Labour leader raised the prospect that he could withdraw support for the controversial policy – leaving Boris Johnson at the mercy of a major Tory rebellion.

The hospitality industry, along with non-essential retail, has been closed down until December as part of the national squeeze.

But there is already furious wrangling over the shape of the curbs after the measures lapse.

In an LBC phone-in this morning, Sir Keir said he supported what the government had been 'trying to achieve' with the curfew, but it 'didn't work'.

He suggested that closing times should be spread out so people did not pour out on to the streets all at once, and indicated that off-licences should be shut at the same time to discourage after-hours partying.

'I do think we get the chance to look again at the 10pm curfew,' Sir Keir said.

'We saw people crowding out at 10pm. There is a smarter way of doing this. I think that if you were to stagger that differently so people left at different times it would be far better.'

WHICH VACCINES HAS THE UK SECURED DEALS FOR?

1. GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi Pasteur: 60million doses

The Government revealed on July 29 it had signed a deal with pharmaceutical giants GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Sanofi Pasteur

If the vaccine proves successful, the UK could begin to vaccinate priority groups, such as frontline health and social care workers and those at increased risk from coronavirus, as early as the first half of next year, the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS) said.

Human clinical studies of the vaccine will begin in September followed by a phase 3 study in December.

The vaccine is based on the existing technology used to produce Sanofi's seasonal flu vaccine. Genetic material from the surface protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is inserted into insect cells – the basis of Sanofi's influenza product – and then injected to provoke an immune response in a human patient.

2. AstraZeneca (manufacturing University of Oxford's): 100million

AstraZeneca, which is working in partnership with Oxford University, is already manufacturing the experimental vaccine after a deal was struck on May 17.

Professor Sarah Gilbert, who is leading the Oxford team, is confident the jab could be ready for the most vulnerable people by the end of the year.

Her comments came after the results from the first phase, published in The Lancet on July 20, showed promise.

The team have genetically engineered a virus to look like the coronavirus – to have the same spike proteins on the outside – but be unable to cause any infection inside a person. This virus, weakened by genetic engineering, is a type of virus called an adenovirus, the same as those which cause common colds, that has been taken from chimpanzees.

3.  BioNTech/Pfizer: 30million

US drug giant Pfizer – most famous for making Viagra – and German firm BioNTech were revealed to have secured a deal with the UK Government on July 20.

It reported positive results from the ongoing phase 2/3 clinical trial of one called BNT162b1 on July 1.  The company is still running phase 2 trials at the moment.

Pfizer's vaccine is one called an mRNA vaccine, which do not directly inject bits of the virus into the body but send genetic material.

mRNA vaccines programme the body to produce parts of the virus itself by injecting the body with a molecule that tells disease-fighting cells what to build. The immune system then learns how to fight it.

4. Valneva: 60million

The Government has given Valneva — whose vaccine is understood to be in the preclinical stages of development — an undisclosed amount of money to expand its factory in Livingston, Scotland.

While the Government revealed a 60million dose deal on July 20, the company said it had reached agreement in principle with the UK government to provide up to 100million doses.

Valneva's jab is an inactivated whole virus vaccine, meaning it injects a damaged version of the coronavirus itself into the body.

The virus has been destroyed in a way that makes it unable to cause infection, but the body still recognises it as a dangerous intruder and therefore mounts an immune response which it can remember in case of a real Covid-19 infection.

5. Janssen (Johnson & Johnson): 30million

The Government has agreed to buy 30million doses of a vaccine made by Janssen if it works.

Officials have agreed to help the company in its development of the jab by part-funding a global clinical trial. The first in-human trials of Janssen's jab began in mid-July and are being done on adults over the age of 18 in the US and Belgium.

The jab is named Ad26.COV2-S, recombinant, and is a type of jab called a viral vector recombinant vaccine.

Proteins that appear on the outside of the coronavirus are reproduced in a lab and then injected into the body to stimulate an immune reaction.

The 'Ad' part of the vaccine's name means it works using an adenovirus – a virus best known for causing the common cold – as a vehicle to transport the coronavirus genetics into the body.

6. Novavax: 60million

Britain has ordered 60million doses of a vaccine being developed by the US-based company Novavax. It will help to fund late-stage clinical trials in the UK and also boost plans to manufacture the vaccine in Britain.

Novavax's jab, named NVX-CoV2373, showed positive results in early clinical trials.

It produced an immune response in 100 per cent of people who received it, the company said, and was safe and 'generally well-tolerated'.

Novavax's candidate is also a recombinant vaccine and transports the spike proteins found on the outside of the coronavirus into the body in order to provoke the immune system.

7. Imperial College London: Unknown quantity

Imperial College London scientists are working on Britain's second home-grown hope for a jab. The candidate is slightly behind Oxford's vaccine in terms of its progress through clinical trials, but is still a major player.

The UK Government is understood to have agreed to buy the vaccine if it works but details of a deal have not yet been publicised.

Imperial's jab is currently in second-phase human trials after early tests showed it appeared to be safe.

Imperial College London will try to deliver genetic material (RNA) from the coronavirus which programs cells inside the patient's body to recreate the spike proteins. It will transport the RNA inside liquid droplets injected into the bloodstream.

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