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The billionaire scientist behind Pfizer and BioNTech's Covid-19 vaccine claims he will end the pandemic


Uğur Şahin, CEO of BioNTech, said, "If the question is whether we can stop this pandemic with this vaccine, my answer is yes."

The lead scientist behind the Pfizer / BioNTech coronavirus vaccine claims he will knock the virus over the head and end the pandemic.

Billionaire Uğur Şahin, CEO of BioNTech, said, "If the question is whether we can stop this pandemic with this vaccine, my answer is yes."

But scientists around the world – and British Prime Minister Boris Johnson – have warned that the push will not be a silver bullet as there is still no guarantee that it will work, despite preliminary news from the end of the tunnel trial.

There are still a number of unanswered questions, including whether the push works in the elderly – considering that most of the study volunteers were young and healthy.

Full dates are expected in the next three weeks, Şahin said. It is expected to be able to prevent Covid-19 disease, but whether the sting can stop people from carrying the coronavirus and spread it to others may not be known for a year, he said to.

BioNTech and Pfizer announced Monday that their jointly developed vaccine candidate exceeded expectations in key Phase 3 trials and was 90 percent effective at preventing people from getting sick.

The big breakthrough means people could start vaccinating before the year is up if regulators are happy with the safety of the bite.

In an interview with The Guardian, Mr Şahin said he hoped the vaccine would provide at least a year of protection, suggesting an annual booster would be necessary.

No10 has signed a 40 million doses contract of the Pfizer / BioNTech shock that will protect 20 million people at an estimated cost of £ 600 million.

Boris Johnson promised the UK would be in the lead, but expectations have been lowered, warning that the vaccine will not "knock out" the coronavirus.

Husband and wife Uğur Şahin and Özlem Türeci are the couple behind the Covid-19 vaccine that could change the world

Husband and wife Uğur Şahin and Özlem Türeci are the couple behind the Covid-19 vaccine that could change the world

Pfizer and BioNTech have produced one of the world's leading candidates for a coronavirus vaccine and are the first to publish the results of their final study

A volunteer in a vaccine study in Turkey will receive a dose of Pfizer and BioNTech in late October

A volunteer in a vaccine study in Turkey will receive a dose of Pfizer and BioNTech in late October

The 55-year-old Şahin and his 53-year-old wife Özlem Türeci are hailed as the "dream team" behind the world's hopes for a Covid vaccine.

The couple co-founded the German company BioNTech in 2008 with the aim of pursuing a much broader range of cancer immunotherapy tools.

The company partnered with Pfizer in March to rapidly develop a Covid-19 vaccine in record time. The selected product – a two-dose vaccine given over a three-week period – began a large clinical trial in July with more than 40,000 participants.

The global race for a Covid-19 vaccine took a leap forward on Monday when Pfizer and BioNTech released a press release claiming their experimental push was 90 percent effective.

BORIS JOHNSON SAYS VACCINE IS NOT A "knockout punch"

Boris Johnson has warned that a vaccine won't knock the coronavirus out as Tories insisted he shouldn't take advantage of the prospect of bumps to keep the country in lockdown longer.

At a bad-tempered PMQ meeting on Wednesday, Mr. Johnson again welcomed the news that Pfizer's vaccine was 90 percent effective in early studies.

But he gave the public a stern message that they shouldn't expect the restrictions to end prematurely, despite claims that rollout could begin by Christmas.

He said the "best way to get this country back on its feet" is to "continue on the path we are going and get the virus out of the way".

The prime minister said science gave the country "two big boxing gloves" over a possible vaccine and mass testing, but added, "Neither of them is capable of knocking out a punch on their own."

This was followed by the press conference on Monday night on Downing Street where Mr Johnson said Britain was "at the forefront" to get the critical shocks.

He warned, however, that the biggest mistake the country could make now was "loosening our resolve". "Now it's more important than ever to obey the rules," he said.

Mr Johnson referred to his earlier comments about the "distant scientific cavalry bugle coming over the forehead of the hill" to save the day. "I can tell you the honking is louder tonight, but it is still some way off. We absolutely cannot rely on this message for a solution," he said.

"The biggest mistake we could make now would be to loosen our resolve at a critical moment."

He added, “I just don't want to let people run away with the idea that this development is a home run, a slam dunk, a shot in the back of the net. I'm afraid it's a long way to go before we beat this thing. & # 39;

Mr. Sahin said, "We now know that vaccines can defeat this virus." Before the results became available, he wasn't sure that this would trigger a sufficiently strong response from the human immune system.

Now, however, he says the most effective candidate that has emerged from the company's studies has attacked the coronavirus "in more ways than one".

Regarding the response of the immune system, Mr. inahin said: “The vaccine prevents Covid-19 from gaining access to our cells.

“But even if the virus finds a way, the T cells knock it over the head and eliminate it. We have trained the immune system very well to perfect these two defensive movements. We now know that the virus cannot defend itself against these mechanisms. & # 39;

T cells are a type of white blood cell produced by the immune system that destroy invading organisms such as viruses.

Scientists have yet to prove that the vaccine can prevent the transmission of the coronavirus because the study wasn't designed to do it.

So far, it has only shown that the shock prevents people from getting sick, rather than preventing them from wearing it and passing it on to others.

Claiming the high efficacy results led him to believe the vaccine could stop the spread of the coronavirus, Mr Sahin added, "I believe that even protecting against symptomatic infections will have dramatic effects."

However, it can take up to a year to determine whether it can also stop asymptomatic (or "silent") infections.

However, more insight into how the vaccine protects people of different ages could come in about three weeks.

The end-stage study did not provide data on the most vulnerable populations, such as immunocompromised or older adults.

However, the first and second phase studies showed that induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies in older adults was less than half that of younger adults, and therefore may not be as good at protecting the most vulnerable.

Mr. Sahin said, “We have only had indirect evidence (regarding the duration of immunity) so far.

Studies in Covid-19 patients have shown that patients with a strong immune response still have this reaction after six months.

"I could imagine that we will be safe for at least a year."

This would mean the Covid-19 jabs would have to be refilled annually and two doses would be required for the first vaccination.

Mr. Şahin and his wife discovered the outcome of the interim litigation on Sunday evening in a phone call from Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla.

Contrary to US President Donald Trump's allegations that the results were withheld until after the US elections, even Mr Bourla did not know the results of the process until Sunday evening, said Mr Şahin.

After the bomb call, Mr. Sahin said, “My wife and I sat down, talked, and made a cup of tea. The relief was a very good feeling. & # 39;

Chris Whitty, chief medical officer, warned it was important that the country continue to "suppress" COVID despite the vaccine news providing "cause for optimism for 2021".

Chris Whitty, chief medical officer, warned it was important that the country continue to "suppress" COVID despite the vaccine news providing "cause for optimism for 2021".

Deputy Chief Medical Officer Jonathan Van-Tam was excited about Pfizer's announcement, saying it was well suited for other test vaccines as they used the same broad approach targeting the virus' spike proteins that help it enter cells

Deputy Chief Medical Officer Jonathan Van-Tam was excited about Pfizer's announcement, saying it would be well suited for other study vaccines as they used the same broad approach, targeting the virus' spike proteins that help it enter cells

HOW PFIZER & # 39; S VACCINE COULD COST THE UK £ 600MILLION

Pfizer's coronavirus vaccine could cost the UK £ 588 million and be seven times more expensive per dose than the one developed by Oxford University.

The bump, which the company said this week was 90 percent effective, could be approved by regulators within weeks. It's likely to cost at least £ 15 per dose and must be stored in specially designed ice packs, which can cost around £ 5,000 each.

The UK is known to have pre-ordered 40 million cans of Pfizer and BioNTech, of which 10 million may be available before the end of 2020.

The cost of the deal has not been confirmed – instead it has been labeled commercially confidential – but BioNTech has disclosed details of its deal with the US government.

It charged the US $ 19.50 per dose for the first 100 million doses, its strategic director Ryan Richardson said this week.

Each person needs two doses of the push three weeks apart for it to work properly. So using the vaccine will cost you $ 39 per person.

This equates to £ 29.40 per person in the UK, assuming the same deal has been agreed.

However, the US may have a preferential deal as Pfizer is based in New York and has bought more than twice as many cans as the UK.

However, a vaccine made by Oxford can only cost £ 2.23 per dose after the university and manufacturer AstraZeneca agreed not to benefit from it. Oxford's 100 million cans could be at a significantly lower £ 223 million.

One of the two vaccines is likely to be the first coronavirus vaccine to be launched in the UK. The NHS is now preparing to start casting a trick in early December.

Ministers, who have already spent billions of pounds protecting the NHS, paying vacation bills and screening people for coronavirus, will no doubt hope that the cheapest option will work out first.

Dr. Andrew Preston, a biologist at the University of Bath, told MailOnline: “Presumably if there is some kind of bulk buying thought, the US, which is buying well over the UK's 40 million cans, could mean a cheaper price per shot. but I really don't know

& # 39; One thing is certain. Although the total cost of the Covid vaccination program for next year will be watering your eyes, it will be a tiny fraction of the amount the government had to borrow for this year.

"On this basis, it is an enormous price-performance ratio."

Şahin was born in Turkey and grew up in Germany, where his parents worked in a Ford factory. As a trained doctor, Mr. Şahin became a professor and researcher specializing in immunotherapy.

He worked in teaching hospitals in Cologne and in the southwest of Homburg, where he met the immunologist Miss Türeci during his early academic career. Medical research and oncology became a shared passion.

Ms. Türeci, the daughter of a Turkish doctor who emigrated to Germany, once said in an interview that they both had time for laboratory work on the day of their wedding.

Mr. Şahin came from a humble background to start a two billion dollar business but still rides to work on his mountain bike.

After BioNTech read a scientific paper on the coronavirus in Wuhan, China, in January, BioNTech hired 500 of its employees to work on developing a vaccine.

The sting is known as the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine, which is not used for any other vaccine in history. Therefore, when it is introduced, it will be the first mRNA jab ever detected in humans.

The mRNA method uses the virus' genetic code to provoke the immune system to produce antibodies – proteins that help attack the virus.

Traditional vaccines take genetic information from a virus and cultivate it in a human cell. This process can take several months longer.

Pfizer and German partner BioNTech are the first drug manufacturers to show successful data from a large-scale clinical trial with a coronavirus vaccine.

There are around 12 people worldwide in the final stages, including Oxford University's AstraZeneca-operated Jab, the results of which are imminent.

A total of 94 people in the Pfizer / BioNTech study of more than 43,000 people have tested positive for Covid-19 to date, and over 90 percent of those surveyed did not receive a real vaccine.

You were in the placebo group where people are given a fake vaccine so what happens to them can be compared to those who get the real thing. Pfizer's study split the participants half into placebo and half vaccine groups.

Companies haven't released the exact number, but a 90 percent effectiveness rate suggests that no more than eight people who received the vaccine infected the virus, compared to 86 people who received a fake sting.

UK Chief Medical Officer, Professor Chris Whitty, said the results showed “the power of science against Covid” adding, “We need to see the final safety and effectiveness data, but it is very encouraging.

"It is important that we keep suppressing Covid, but it is cause for optimism for 2021."

Before the vaccine can be administered to millions of Britons, it must first be approved by the regulator – the MHRA – which has already started an ongoing review of all the data so it can be quickly followed through the process.

Health chiefs have repeatedly admitted that it is possible for the UK to get their hands on a vaccine before Christmas, and proving that the vaccine is safe remains the only hurdle.

The push has to be given in two installments, so theoretically the 10 million due in the UK before Christmas means five million people could get it.

At a press conference Monday night, Boris Johnson said Britain was "at the forefront" to get the critical blows.

He warned, however, that the biggest mistake the country could make now was "loosening our resolve". "Now it's more important than ever to obey the rules," he said.

The Prime Minister's official spokesman said: "The results are promising and while we are optimistic about a breakthrough, we must remember that there are no guarantees."

While the vaccine announcement by pharmaceutical giant Pfizer and biotech company BioNTech marked a turning point after months of coronavirus misery, it doesn't mean things can return to normal for various reasons.

Even if and when the shock receives regulatory approval, It will take some time before enough of it is produced and distributed.

Dr. Charlie Weller, director of vaccination programs at the Wellcome Trust, said Monday, “We need to be realistic about what a successful vaccine can offer.

“Unfortunately that doesn't mean we'll wake up tomorrow, we'll all get the vaccine and the pandemic will end.

"But it gives us the light at the end of the tunnel, this hope and this positive attitude that this pandemic will come to an end."

Dr. Weller said, “But even if – I am very optimistic here – when the full data is released and the vaccine can be rolled out, this is best-case scenario, we still don't have enough doses for everyone.

“And that's why we need a range of vaccines and treatments to continue public health measures on social distancing and masking.

& # 39; It's not that silver bullet. It's a really positive next step, but it's going to be the little little steps rather than the giant leap. & # 39;

Professor Nilay Shah, director of chemical engineering at Imperial College London, said the results reported by Pfizer / BioNTech were good news.

When asked if this would mean the end of the pandemic, he said to PA: "Not for a while."

He added that until the first wave of people – perhaps those over 50, health and social workers, and people with health problems – are vaccinated, there will be some level of restrictions.

David Nabarro, co-director of the Institute for Global Health Innovation at Imperial College London, said "Any promising news about a vaccine is good news," but warned that there is still a long way to go.

He told the BBC, "Anyone who hears and sees this will say, 'Wow, does that mean life can go back to normal in the near future? "

& # 39; We're not there yet. The vaccine will help, but it won't be a complete game changer. & # 39;

Sir John Bell, Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford University and a member of the government's vaccine task force, was extremely optimistic about the potential of the coronavirus sting.

When asked if people could look forward to a return to normal life by spring, Sir John told BBC Radio 4's The World At One, “Yes, yes, yes, yes. I'll probably be the first to say this, but I will say this with some confidence. & # 39;

Dr. Michael Head, Senior Research Fellow in Global Health at the University of Southampton, added, "This sounds cautiously like an excellent result from the Phase 3 studies, but we should be a little careful."

Deputy Chief Medical Officer Jonathan Van-Tam was excited about Pfizer's announcement, saying it bodes well for other study vaccines as they used the same broad approach.

But he also warned that "a swallow" does not make summer and that there could not yet be any relaxation of social distancing measures.

Pfizer's next move is expected to be in the US to apply for emergency clearance, which they'll need to contact the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for once they have two months of safety data – expected to be full at the end of month.

The pharmaceutical company made no mention of having applied for UK or European approval when the results were released, but it is likely that all data will be submitted at the same time.

Pfizer plans to produce 50 million cans by the end of the year and 1.3 billion in 2021.

A vaccine launch on such a large scale has never been attempted in the UK and would be a major logistical challenge.

Matt Hancock said the NHS is preparing to launch the Pfon coronavirus vaccine this week from early next month, with nursing home staff and residents at the top of the line.

The Health Secretary said the first British are likely to get their hands on the sting "within weeks" of being given the go-ahead from the UK medical watchdog.

A priority list of who should get the vaccine first was drawn up earlier this year by the influential Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunization (JCVI) and is now being used as a blueprint for launch.

Professor Van-Tam has suggested that millions of people could be missing out on the best Covid-19 vaccines because they need to be issued as soon as possible.

He said speed is of the essence and the people most susceptible to Covid-19, such as the elderly and people with cancer, need to get the first high quality vaccine made available to stop the epidemic.

Scientists admit that this will likely mean millions of people will get an imperfect vaccine, but getting an early vaccine would save more lives than waiting for a better one.

Everything you need to know about Pfizer's breakthrough

WHAT DO THE NEW TEST RESULTS SHOW?

WHY THE PFIZER VACCINE CANNOT BE A SILVER BALL

LOGISTIC nightmare

Pfizer's vaccine must be stored at extremely low temperatures, making trying to ship and distribute the shots a logistical headache.

The vaccine must be stored at -70 ° C, which precludes storage in most hospitals or pharmacies, where shocks are normally kept and administered.

Pfizer's shot will likely need to be kept in laboratories or specialty hospitals.

Expensive refrigerated trucks are also required to move across the country.

There are also rumors from insiders that the UK does not have enough of those trucks or medical glass vials and PPE for mass launching a vaccine across the country.

Last month, logistics advisory group 7Bridges – one of the main firms charged with helping officials mass vaccinate Britons – said it hadn't heard from No. 10 about a plan to launch the first successful stabbing candidate.

Philip Ashton, managing director of 7Bridges, said it was possible that health workers and high-risk people could get a stab in their hands by the end of the year.

But it could take up to two years to vaccinate the entire nation, he claimed.

The logistics expert does not believe that the UK currently has enough cold chain trucks to transport the vaccine doses.

The “cold chain” is a system for storing and transporting vaccines at recommended temperatures from the place of manufacture to the point of administration.

POSSIBLE LOW ABSORPTION

There are concerns that a significant number of people will refuse to take a coronavirus vaccine.

A large study by University College London in late September estimated that a fifth of Britons would oppose a potential push.

If it is grossly extrapolated to the whole country, it could mean 13 million people refuse to take it.

The researchers found a "level of misinformation regarding vaccines" that could significantly affect uptake once a Covid-19 vaccine is approved.

In the largest poll of its kind, 22 percent of 17,500 respondents said they were unlikely to be vaccinated, and 10 percent strongly opposed it.

Only half (49 percent) of the respondents said they were "very likely" to be vaccinated, while three quarters (78 percent) thought it was "likely".

Scientists believe that an intake of 70 percent will be sufficient to achieve "herd immunity" – a form of indirect protection against it when a high percentage of the population has become immune to a disease.

Even if 22 percent reject this, protection of the community might still be possible.

However, when the public's trust in a vaccine dwindles further, it gives rise to serious concern.

MINK MUTATED COVID-19

A mutated version of the mink-caught coronavirus could make Pfizer's vaccine less effective than the advertised 90 percent figure.

Scientists believe the virus jumped from farm workers to minks in the summer before it was returned to humans.

In the transition between species, a mutation occurred in its "spike" protein, which it uses to enter human cells.

This mutation in the protein appears to make the strain more resistant to antibodies, proteins that are made and stored by the immune system.

Pfizer's push trains the body to produce a wave of these antibodies by exposing them to laboratory-generated genetic material that is designed to mimic what scientists found in the coronavirus.

However, if the new variant of Covid-19 becomes the predominant strain, there are fears that the vaccine may be less effective.

Ian Jones, a virologist from the University of Reading, told MailOnline that the possibility that the mink strain could suppress the body's antibody response was a "formal possibility".

He said: 'In theory, the mink shape that has mutations in the spike protein could then escape the immune response generated by the vaccines currently under development and produce Covid-19-2.

“There are many reasons why this wouldn't just happen, but it's a formal way why the mass decision took place.

LIMITED DOSES

British Vaccination Czar Kate Bingham said last week the UK had the capacity to produce 10 million doses of the Pfizer sting by the end of the year.

The way the vaccine works is to give two doses almost a month apart – meaning only 5 million Britons will have access.

There are nearly a million NHS frontline workers across the UK.

They have been highlighted as a top priority for the vaccine by UK health officials as they are the most likely to catch the virus or pass it on to people who are already sick.

This means that only a few million vulnerable or elderly Brits will actually have access by Christmas.

The 10 million cans advertised is also a best-case scenario, and it's very likely that problems in the supply chain could affect the country's ability to dispense that many cans.

Pfizer and German partner BioNTech said that 94 people have tested positive for Covid-19 in a study of more than 43,000 people and that over 90 percent of those surveyed did not receive a real vaccine.

This suggests that the vaccine is 90 percent effective and that no more than eight of those 94 people actually received the real bump.

Most of the people who tested positive belonged to the placebo group, where people were given a fake vaccine so what happened to them could be compared to those who were given the real thing.

The companies did not disclose how many people had the vaccine and how many did not.

The results were published in a company press release, which is not deemed transparent enough for independent review. However, they will be fully published later this year when the study is more complete.

This phase of the study will continue until at least 164 participants test positive, the researchers said.

While previous studies have been extremely promising – suggesting, for example, that various vaccines boosted the immune system's response to Covid – this is the first time a shock has been shown to actually fight off the virus.

That the Pfizer shock is 90 percent effective is far better than the scientists dared hope.

WHAT DOES THAT MEAN FOR ME?

The general public will not benefit from the vaccine in the coming weeks or months – if it is approved – but today's results mean there is a glimmer of hope that the pandemic could end.

Coronavirus still can't be stopped without a vaccine, and one that prevents infection or at least reduces the risk of death could spell the end of social distancing.

In the UK, officials have bought 40 million doses of the vaccine and it could be available to the most at risk in a matter of months if the study ends well.

When could it be ready to give something to the public?

Pfizer and BioNTech have announced that they will attempt to apply for approval from the Food and Drug Administration in the US within the next month, provided their final results are as positive as today's announcement suggests.

This is because Pfizer is an American company based in New York. BioNTech is a German company so the same process is likely to be used in the European Union.

It will then be a question of how long it will take regulators to decide and how long it will take to dispense all doses if approved, but it could only be weeks until December.

Before the vaccine can be administered to millions of Britons, it must first be approved by the regulator – the MHRA – which has already started an ongoing review of all the data so it can quickly follow up the process when the drug giant finally submits it for approval in front.

The UK now has the power to approve its own vaccine without waiting for a license from Europe as new laws were passed during the pandemic, or EU approval would also allow the UK to use the sting.

Kate Bingham, Leiterin der britischen Impfstoff-Taskforce, sagte letzte Woche, dass es möglich sei, dass der Stich vor Weihnachten in Großbritannien fertig sein könnte.

Sie sagte, es bestehe die Möglichkeit, vor Jahresende fertig zu sein.

Hat Großbritannien bereits Dosen des Impfstoffs erhalten?

Downing Street gab heute bekannt, 40 Millionen Dosen des Doppel-Impfstoffs bestellt zu haben, was ausreichen würde, um 20 Millionen Menschen zu verabreichen.

Kate Bingham sagte letzte Woche, dass bis Ende des Jahres 10 Millionen Dosen des Pfizer-Impfstoffs in Großbritannien erhältlich sein könnten.

Dies bedeutet, dass höchstens 10 Millionen Briten den Impfstoff bis Weihnachten erhalten, aber der Impfstoff wird in zwei Schüssen verabreicht, sodass dies tatsächlich fünf Millionen sein könnten.

Weitere 30 Millionen Dosen würden dann produziert und nächstes Jahr nach Großbritannien geschickt – der Zeitplan dafür ist noch nicht klar.

WIE FUNKTIONIERT DER IMPFSTOFF?

The sting is known as a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine, which uses the virus' genetic code to provoke the immune system.

Traditional vaccines usually use damaged or destroyed versions of the real virus to achieve the same effect. If this works, this will be the first mRNA jab ever detected in humans.

The vaccine is made of laboratory-generated genetic material that was created to mimic what scientists found in the coronavirus.

The genetic material (mRNA) is then injected into the body as a fat molecule.

The genes are specifically chosen to encode the "spike" protein on the outside of the coronavirus, which the virus uses to bind to and infect human cells.

When the molecules get into the body, they deliver the mRNA to living cells and cause the body to make its own copies of the spike protein.

When these appear in the bloodstream, they trigger the immune system in the same way as the real virus, although the effects are milder since no actual viruses are driving the infections, so the situation is under the body's control.

In doing so, the immune system learns how to recognize and destroy the spikes so that it can kill the virus before it causes Covid-19 when it actually hits them.

IST ES SICHER?

Pfizer and BioNTech state that they have not identified any safety issues during their six-month trial.

This suggests with good confidence that the vaccine is safe for humans, at least in the short term.

Long-term safety can only be demonstrated if large numbers of people have received the vaccine and have followed their health for years or even decades. Therefore, scientists cannot yet be 100% sure that side effects will never occur.

However, the current Phase 3 study includes more than 43,000 people from different backgrounds around the world, all of whom will be closely monitored after vaccination.

When people experience side effects from the vaccine that are more common or severe than those in the placebo group who received a counterfeit vaccine for comparison, this will be carefully investigated by the researchers.

Pfizer and BioNTech are not given permission to distribute the shock without proving independent regulatory authorities that they have specific data to prove that the shock is as safe as possible.

Regulators will not accept license applications until at least half of the people in the study have been vaccinated for at least two months. These dates are expected in a fortnight. Only then will the true safety profile be known.

WAS PRÜFEN WISSENSCHAFTLER NOCH?

Die Studie läuft noch und wird wahrscheinlich in den kommenden Jahren nicht vollständig enden, denn je mehr Daten Wissenschaftler haben, desto sicherer können sie über ihre Ergebnisse sein.

Kurzfristig müssen die Forscher weiterhin Sicherheitsdaten sammeln und nachweisen, dass der Impfstoff tatsächlich wirkt.

Das Team sagte, dass es die aktuelle Phase der Studie offen halten wird, bis mindestens 164 Personen mit dem Coronavirus infiziert sind.

Anschließend vergleichen sie die Infektionsrate in der Impfstoffgruppe mit der der Placebogruppe, die einen gefälschten Impfstoff erhalten hat, um festzustellen, welchen Unterschied der Stich macht.

Sie werden sehen wollen, dass nach dem Stich deutlich weniger Menschen krank wurden als Menschen, die den falschen hatten. Frühe Daten legen nahe, dass dies der Fall ist.

WELCHE IMPFSTOFFE HAT DAS UK SICHERE ANGEBOTE?

1. GlaxoSmithKline und Sanofi Pasteur: 60 Millionen Dosen

Die Regierung gab am 29. Juli bekannt, dass sie einen Vertrag mit den Pharmagiganten GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) und Sanofi Pasteur unterzeichnet hatte

Wenn sich der Impfstoff als erfolgreich erweist, könnte das Vereinigte Königreich bereits in der ersten Hälfte des nächsten Jahres mit der Impfung vorrangiger Gruppen beginnen, z (BEIS) sagte.

Die klinischen Studien am Menschen mit dem Impfstoff beginnen im September, gefolgt von einer Phase-3-Studie im Dezember.

Der Impfstoff basiert auf der vorhandenen Technologie zur Herstellung des saisonalen Grippeimpfstoffs von Sanofi. Genetisches Material aus dem Oberflächenprotein des SARS-CoV-2-Virus wird in Insektenzellen – die Basis des Influenzaprodukts von Sanofi – eingefügt und dann injiziert, um bei einem menschlichen Patienten eine Immunantwort auszulösen.

2. AstraZeneca (produzierende Universität von Oxford): 100 Millionen

AstraZeneca, das mit der Universität Oxford zusammenarbeitet, stellt den experimentellen Impfstoff bereits her, nachdem am 17. Mai ein Deal abgeschlossen wurde.

Professor Sarah Gilbert, die das Oxford-Team leitet, ist zuversichtlich, dass der Stoß bis Ende des Jahres für die am stärksten gefährdeten Menschen bereit sein könnte.

Ihre Kommentare kamen, nachdem die Ergebnisse der ersten Phase, die am 20. Juli in The Lancet veröffentlicht wurden, vielversprechend waren.

Das Team hat ein Virus gentechnisch so verändert, dass es wie das Coronavirus aussieht – außen die gleichen Spike-Proteine ​​aufweist -, aber innerhalb einer Person keine Infektion verursachen kann. Dieses gentechnisch geschwächte Virus ist eine Art von Virus, das als Adenovirus bezeichnet wird, genau wie diejenigen, die Erkältungen verursachen und Schimpansen entnommen wurden.

3. BioNTech / Pfizer: 30 Millionen

Der US-amerikanische Drogenriese Pfizer – bekannt für die Herstellung von Viagra – und das deutsche Unternehmen BioNTech haben am 20. Juli einen Vertrag mit der britischen Regierung abgeschlossen.

Es wurden positive Ergebnisse aus der laufenden klinischen Phase 2/3-Studie mit dem Namen BNT162b1 am 1. Juli gemeldet. Das Unternehmen führt derzeit noch Phase 2-Studien durch.

Pfizers Impfstoff ist ein sogenannter mRNA-Impfstoff, der nicht direkt Teile des Virus in den Körper injiziert, sondern genetisches Material sendet.

mRNA-Impfstoffe programmieren den Körper so, dass er Teile des Virus selbst produziert, indem er dem Körper ein Molekül injiziert, das den krankheitsbekämpfenden Zellen sagt, was sie aufbauen sollen. Das Immunsystem lernt dann, wie man es bekämpft.

4. Valneva: 60 Millionen

Die Regierung hat Valneva – dessen Impfstoff sich in einem präklinischen Entwicklungsstadium befindet – einen nicht genannten Geldbetrag für die Erweiterung ihrer Fabrik in Livingston, Schottland, zur Verfügung gestellt.

Während die Regierung am 20. Juli einen 60-Millionen-Dosis-Deal bekannt gab, erklärte das Unternehmen, es habe im Prinzip eine Einigung mit der britischen Regierung erzielt, bis zu 100 Millionen Dosen bereitzustellen.

Valnevas Stich ist ein inaktivierter Ganzvirus-Impfstoff, dh er injiziert eine beschädigte Version des Coronavirus selbst in den Körper.

The virus has been destroyed in a way that makes it unable to cause infection, but the body still recognises it as a dangerous intruder and therefore mounts an immune response which it can remember in case of a real Covid-19 infection.

5. Janssen (Johnson & Johnson): 30million

The Government has agreed to buy 30million doses of a vaccine made by Janssen if it works.

Officials have agreed to help the company in its development of the jab by part-funding a global clinical trial. The first in-human trials of Janssen's jab began in mid-July and are being done on adults over the age of 18 in the US and Belgium.

The jab is named Ad26.COV2-S, recombinant, and is a type of jab called a viral vector recombinant vaccine.

Proteins that appear on the outside of the coronavirus are reproduced in a lab and then injected into the body to stimulate an immune reaction.

The 'Ad' part of the vaccine's name means it works using an adenovirus – a virus best known for causing the common cold – as a vehicle to transport the coronavirus genetics into the body.

6. Novavax: 60million

Britain has ordered 60million doses of a vaccine being developed by the US-based company Novavax. It will help to fund late-stage clinical trials in the UK and also boost plans to manufacture the vaccine in Britain.

Novavax's jab, named NVX-CoV2373, showed positive results in early clinical trials.

It produced an immune response in 100 per cent of people who received it, the company said, and was safe and 'generally well-tolerated'.

Novavax's candidate is also a recombinant vaccine and transports the spike proteins found on the outside of the coronavirus into the body in order to provoke the immune system.

7. Imperial College London: Unknown quantity

Imperial College London scientists are working on Britain's second home-grown hope for a jab. The candidate is slightly behind Oxford's vaccine in terms of its progress through clinical trials, but is still a major player.

The UK Government is understood to have agreed to buy the vaccine if it works but details of a deal have not yet been publicised.

Imperial's jab is currently in second-phase human trials after early tests showed it appeared to be safe.

Imperial College London will try to deliver genetic material (RNA) from the coronavirus which programs cells inside the patient's body to recreate the spike proteins. It will transport the RNA inside liquid droplets injected into the bloodstream.

Safety data is still being collected, too.

Before Pfizer and BioNTech can apply to US regulators for permission to use the jab on the public, they must produce two months' worth of data for at least half of the study's 38,955 participants who have had both doses of the vaccine.

This data must show that the vaccine can be given safely to large numbers of people without any serious side effects.

Vaccines are not ruled out by any side effects, and regulators will be looking for proof that the benefits of the jab outweigh any potential risks.

WHO WILL GET THE JAB FIRST IN THE UK?

Care home residents and staff will be the first to get a Covid-19 vaccine when one is approved, according to Government advice published in late September.

Everyone over the age of 80 and NHS staff will be second in line, guidance from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation says.

Those over 75 are next in line, followed by those over 70, over 65, and high risk adults under 65 with diseases such as cancer.

They are followed by intermediate-risk adults under 65 – including those with diabetes and asthma.

Next up are those over 60, with over 55 and over 50 being the last priority groups.

The general population will be the last to get their hands on a vaccine, and they will most likely be prioritized based on age or underlying conditions.

HOW WILL THE VACCINE BE ADMINISTERED IN THE UK?

The UK government has announced plans to expand the group of people who can deliver vaccines and potentially create walk-in or drive-through centers in public places such as parking lots outside of general practitioners' offices.

Physios and paramedics will be trained to deliver Covid-19 jabs to help the NHS carry out its mass vaccination programme through the winter.

Currently in the UK only doctors, pharmacists and some nurses are legally allowed to administer vaccines.

But new laws passed in October allow more health workers – including midwives and even medical students – the ability to vaccinate members of the public.

According to the government, they are currently undergoing "robust training" that "will save thousands of lives by increasing access to vaccines against deadly diseases".

ARE THERE LOGISTICAL PROBLEMS WITH BUYING SO MUCH VACCINE?

Experts have raised concerns that storing the vaccine in the UK could be difficult.

Pfizer and BioNTech's vaccine may have to be stored at temperatures below -70°C (-90°F) to make sure that it remains stable and can still work when injected.

If at any point between the laboratory and the place where they are administered they rise to higher temperatures, they can become chemically unstable and stop working properly.

Dr Michael Head, global health expert at the University of Southampton, said: 'It has been reported that the vaccine requires storage at -70 degrees centigrade, and that is not necessarily routinely available in most health centres even in the UK, let alone globally.'

And Dr. Al Edwards, Professor of Biomedical Technology at the University of Reading added, “The task of making significant quantities of a new vaccine and largely disrupting it will be challenging, not least for this particular formulation, to ensure that it is appropriate Frozen until use and must not thaw during transport. "

WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR LOCKDOWNS AND SOCIAL DISTANCING?

Social distancing and lockdowns – known as 'non-pharmaceutical interventions' – will not come to an end as soon as a vaccine is proven to work.

It would take months to vaccinate enough people for it to actually impact on the spread of coronavirus among the public, especially if people who are more likely to be in care homes or shielding are the first ones to receive the jab.

Experts do not know exactly what proportion of people will need to be vaccinated to develop herd immunity, which is when the virus cannot cause outbreaks any more.

It is thought to be higher than two thirds, which means over 42 million people will need to have a working vaccine.

The UK has not ordered enough of Pfizer's vaccine to rely on that completely – although more could likely be bought in future – but it has ordered more than 300million doses of other vaccines that could work.

Sir John Bell, regius professor of medicine at the University of Oxford, said on BBC Radio 4 this afternoon: 'I am really delighted with this result – it shows that you can make a vaccine against this little critter. Ninety percent is an amazing level of efficacy.

'It rolls the pitch for other vaccines because I can't see any reason now why we shouldn't have a handful of good vaccines.'

Asked if people could look forward to a return to normal life by the spring, Sir John replied: 'Yes, yes, yes, yes. I am probably the first guy to say that but I will say that with some confidence.'

WHAT DO SCIENTISTS SAY ABOUT THE PROGRESS?

Scientists from across the UK have today praised the results of the Pfizer Covid-19 vaccine, saying it could spell an end to the pandemic.

Oxford University's Professor Peter Horby, who led the team that proved the steroid dexamethasone could save dying coronavirus patients, said: 'This news made me smile from ear to ear.'

While Dr Paul Hunter, an infectious disease expert at the University of East Anglia, told MailOnline he was 'really pleased about this result'.

'You can almost begin to start seeing the light at the end of the tunnel. I just hope it's not an oncoming train.'

Despite offering a glimmer of hope, other scientists have said the results are still only early indications, so it is important to not get carried away.

Professor Brendan Wren, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, said: 'A 90 per cent efficacy for a phase three trial is excellent for a new vaccine that could make a huge difference.

'But more confirmatory safety and efficacy studies are required.

Professor Eleanor Riley, an immunology and infectious disease expert at the University of Edinburgh, added: 'At face value, this is exceptionally good news.

'However, the full data set on which the claim is based has not yet been released and so we don't know exactly what has been found.'

Sir John Bell, medicine professor at the University of Oxford, welcomed the news but said the distribution of the vaccine would be 'challenging'.

'They will obviously start in the US – that's probably appropriate,' he told BBC Radio 4's The World at One. 'BioNTech is a German company so there will be, I am sure, doses made available for Europe.

'The UK has done a pre-approval agreement to purchase up 30 million doses of this vaccine, so we are very well prepared to get access to this vaccine when it becomes available.

'The manufacturing challenges are not small, so people need be ready to wait a bit to get it.'

HOW DOES THE OXFORD UNIVERSITY JAB DIFFER?

Oxford's is an adenovirus vector vaccine, which contains a weakened version of a chimpanzee cold virus that has been genetically changed to trigger the production of immune cells – antibodies and T-cells.

COULD MORE THAN ONE VACCINE BE USED BY THE UK?

Definitely. The Government has orders in place for 300 million doses from six different companies. If more than one is approved, the joint virus committee will decide which people will get which vaccines, depending on the trial data for different age groups. It is unlikely that two vaccines will be used in combination for the same person, at least in the near future – more research will be needed to see if that boosts protection or not.

DOES THIS MEAN AN END TO THE CURSED CORONAVIRUS?

No – and the Government was keen last night to stress adherence to social distancing rules. But if the vaccine is as effective as the results suggest it may mean an end to this phase of the pandemic. Some scientists last night suggested it might even mean a return to normality by spring.

HOW MANY PEOPLE NEED TO BE VACCINATED BEFORE WE TRULY KILL OFF COVID?

To see off the virus we need to achieve 'herd immunity', which will mean the virus can no longer spread from person to person and simply dies out. In normal circumstances every person with Covid affects three others – giving the infamous R-rate of 3. For the virus to die out the R rate needs to be reduced to 1. In order to achieve that, 60 per cent of the population would need to be vaccinated. Experts believe that if one or two more vaccines come through – and if they have anything like the same potential – that will be achievable in a year.

HOW MUCH WILL IT COST?

The vaccine will be provided by the NHS for free. It is unclear how much the Government's deal with Pfizer is worth, but the firm is reported to have struck deals with other nations for around £15 a dose.

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