There are various ways in which animals can camouflage themselves against the environment.
Counter shadow is a form of camouflage used by animals where one side of the animal is darker than the other.
In the animal kingdom, the back of an animal (dorsal side) is often dark, while its underside (ventral side) is light.
In 2017, an immaculately preserved fossil of an armored dinosaur was found, which is believed to have used this form of camouflage.
Although the dinosaur was 18 feet long and nearly 3,000 pounds, it was still so hunted that evolution preferred camouflage to confrontation.
Many animals can change their color to fit in with their surroundings.
Chamaeleons have two superimposed thick layers of iridescent cells that contain pigments and reflect light.
There are tiny crystals in the upper skin layer of chameleons. Depending on how relaxed they are, the nanocrystals move closer together or further apart.
This movement changes the wavelength of the reflected light and therefore appears to the eye in a different color.
Animals such as squid and squid change color using specific cells called chromatophores that change skin color.
These chromatophores are specialized cells that are controlled by nerves, which changes the change in the pigment sack and thus the color difference.
Snowshoe bunnies have brown fur in summer, but develop white fur in winter so that they cannot be easily spotted by predators
These changes can occur almost instantaneously and are controlled by nerves or chemicals in the body.
Some mammals, such as arctic foxes and snowshoe hares, change the color of their fur over time in response to the increased snowfall associated with winter.
Snowshoe bunnies have brown fur in summer, but develop white fur in winter so that they cannot be easily spotted by predators.
In addition to changing the color, they can also manipulate the texture of their skin to fit into the terrain.
The surface texture of an animal skin can also make a significant contribution to the fact that it blends in with the background, especially when the background is rough.
For example, squid and squid often live on rocky coral reefs or on the sea floor, where the texture is very uneven.
By contracting their papillae – tiny muscles on the surface of the skin – they can mimic different textures.
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