Chartwell's Land has a history that dates back to the 14th century and is believed to have been built as early as the 16th century. Historic England notes that some of the Tudor masonry is still visible on the outside walls.
Chartwell, now a Grade II listed building, became the family home of Sir Winston Churchill in 1922.
T.The report draws on his leadership during the Bengal famine of 1943, his "exceptionally long, complex and controversial life" and his position as Secretary of State for the Colonies (1921-1922) as the reason for listing.
You also note the fact that he was against India's independence.
Batemans, East Sussex
Bateman & # 39; s is a Grade II listed building dating from 1634 and was the home of the author Rudyard Kipling from 1902 until his death in 1936.
The National Trust lists the home of Rudyard Kipling because "the British Empire was a central theme and context of its literary production".
Allan Bank, Cumbria
The Allan Bank is a Grade II listed building in Grasmere, where the romantic poet William Wordsworth lived from 1808 to 1811.
Despite his opposition to slavery, the home of poet William Wordsworth – Allan Bank in the Lake District – is included as his brother John commanded a ship for the East India Company in 1801 and directed two successful voyages to China.
Anglesey Abbey, Cambridgeshire
The abbey was bought by Samuel Shepheard, a wealthy merchant and member of the Cambridgeshire Parliament, who served as director of the new East India Company and ran the South Sea Company.
His father, Samuel Shepheard Sr., was a founding member of the new East India Company and the South Sea Company. The report notes that his family wealth was based on overseas trade.
Blickling Hall, Norfolk
Blickling Hall is a stately home dating from 1616 inherited from William Schomberg Robert Kerr, the 8th Marquess of Lothian, in the 19th century.
Kerr's grandfather was Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 2nd Earl Talbot of Hensol.
As the executor and trustee of two plantations in Jamaica, Charles received £ 4,660 for 543 enslaved people.
During the Second World War the house was confiscated and served as the officers' mess for the nearby RAF Oulton.
It came under the tutelage of the National Trust in 1940.
Felbrigg Hall, Norfolk
This property was owned by William Windham III (1750-1810), a longtime MP and contemporary of anti-slavery activist William Wilberforce.
According to the report, Windham was one of only 16 MPs who voted against the abolition bill in 1807, and as Secretary for War and Colonies in 1806 believed that abolition would lead to the economic ruin of Britain.
Hatfield Forest Shell House, Essex
Hatfield Forest was owned by Jacob Houblon III in 1732.
Houblon came from a large family of bankers and merchants, and the family name appears in documents dating back to 1674 which indicate that the Houblons were in a business partnership with the Hankey plantation-owner family.
The house itself was built by Jacob Houblon III in 1757 and the report says it is closely linked to the history of trade with the West Indies in the 18th century.
The interior and exterior are shaped with shells from the Caribbean, West Africa and the Indo-Pacific. Cowrie shells are linked to the transatlantic slave trade, according to the National Trust.
According to trust experts, Ickworth belonged to Admiral Augustus John Hervey, 3rd Earl of Bristol, whose family was closely linked to the slave trade.
The report states that the Hervey family is linked to Jamaican plantations by a marriage agreement made at the time of the union in 1798 by Elizabeth Hervey and Charles Rose Ellis, Lord Seaford.
It contains a list of 349 named enslaved men, women and children on the Montpelier Estate in Jamaica who were to be transferred along with other goods including a sugar factory.
Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk
The National Trust states that Oxburgh Hall is included because the son of former owner Sir Richard Bedingfeld spent much of his career as a British government colonial official in the West Indies.
Felix Bedingfeld bought a plantation in 1833 and three years later received £ 1,024 in compensation for the 61 enslaved people who worked there.
Peckover House, Cambridgeshire
Jonathan Peckover was a businessman and ran Wisbech and Lincolnshire Bank in a banking hall next to the house.
The National Trust report states that the Peckovers were Quakers, many believed that all human beings were created equal in the eyes of God and campaigned for the abolition of slavery.
The Peckover family was among the founders of the Wisbech & Fenland Museum, whose collection includes the campaign box of slave artifacts and African goods.
Wimpole Hall, Cambridgeshire
Sir Thomas Chicheley of Wimpole Hall was married to Sarah Russell – the daughter of a politician and director of the East India Company.
The hall was later inherited by Henrietta Cavendish Holles, who married into the Harley family in 1713.
Robert Harley, who as Chancellor of the Exchequer founded the South Sea Company in 1711 and, according to the National Trust, was associated with plantations in Barbados, Antigua and Suriname.
Henrietta's daughter married William Bentinck, whose father was a plantation owner.
The Trust goes on to say that Wimpole was bought in 1740 by Philip Yorke, who, as attorney general, stated that escaped enslaved people who came to Britain or Ireland from the West Indies were not free.
This gave the slave traders the legal right to enforce their return to the plantations.
The Trust's report describes how the Ankerwycke Estate was purchased by John Blagrove the Younger, a plantation owner, in the early nineteenth century.
At the time of his death, he owned 1,500 enslaved men and women in Jamaica.
The report states, "In his will he left each of them a dollar" as a small token of my respect for their faithful and loving service and willingness to work for me and my family. "
Ashdown House, Berkshire
Ashdown House was built by William Craven, who was involved in the Carolina colony and was appointed governor of the Hudson & # 39; s Bay Company and commissioner for Tangier.
Basildon Park, Berkshire
This Grade II listed building was built between 1776 and 1783 for Francis Sykes, an East India Company official who, according to the Trust, returned to Berkshire from India with wealth and a sense of luxury.
The report also states that Sykes returned with at least one servant and said: "His will mentions the" black servant Thomas Radakissan "".
Bodiam Castle, East Sussex
This castle was built in the 14th century to protect the area from the French during the Hundred Years War.
After being owned by Lord Thanet in the 17th century, it was sold to Parliament for fines and then fell into disrepair.
The Trust says the castle, now a listed building, was saved from demolition by John Fuller, who bought the castle in 1828.
The report said, “Fuller inherited from his uncle Rose Fuller MP an estate near Bodiam and a plantation in Jamaica, including enslaved people.
Rose relied on his brothers Stephen and Thomas to process and trade sugar when he arrived in England. John and Rose Fuller were anti-abolitionists. & # 39;
Carlyle's house, Greater London District
Carlyle & # 39; s House, a quintessentially Georgian row house in Chelsea, was the home of the author, biographer, and historian Thomas Carlyle.
The report references Carlyle's paper, published in Fraser & # 39; s Magazine in 1849, which advocated the reintroduction of slavery in the West Indies.
It is also said that in his work Shooting Niagara: And After? (1867), "Carlyle promoted the historical perception of racial hierarchies and promoted the idea that Africans were born to bondage".
This Grade II listed building was built in the early 18th century by Thomas Onslow, 2nd Baron Onslow.
The National Trust states that Onslow married Elizabeth Knight, "who inherited a sizable fortune from her uncle, including a plantation in Jamaica that relied on the labor of enslaved people and the proceeds of his business that transported and transported enslaved people acted ".
Also located in the gardens of the estate is the Māori meeting house called Hinemihi, which was purchased by William Onslow, who was Governor of New Zealand from 1888 to 1892. He had it returned to Clandon Park where it will be preserved.
The Trust claims it reached an agreement last year to return Hinemihi's carvings to New Zealand to be exchanged for contemporary carvings and to create a new meeting house.
The Claremont Estate was bought in 1914 by Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme.
Claremont's Gardens, owned by the National Trust, are one of the oldest preserved gardens of its time and date from the 18th century. They are listed on the Class I Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.
The Trust added the property to its list because Pelham-Holles held numerous political offices, including Secretary of State in the South Department responsible for the American colonies.
It was later bought by Robert Clive with funds raised in India.
The Trust explains, "Clive has built a new mansion to house his precious Indian objects and growing collection of paintings."
The property was bought by Charles Rose Ellis, the first Baron Seaford around 1798.
He was a descendant of Colonel John Ellis who established the family fortune by settling in Jamaica in 1665.
This Grade II listed mansion was built in 1851 and is one of the National Trust's most popular attractions.
The Trust states that the 47-room mansion overlooking the Thames was the site of the premiere of the now controversial song Rule Britannia on August 1, 1740.
The report says that Cliveden was sold to George Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland, for £ 30,000 in 1849. His wife, Harriet Howard, was a close friend of Queen Victoria and an avid supporter of the 'anti-slavery movement'.
Grays Court, Oxfordshire
This Grade II listed Tudor house once appeared in a season three episode of Downton Abbey.
It was added to the National Trust list as it belonged to London merchant William Paul MP and was given as a dowry in 1724 when his daughter Catherine married Sir William Stapleton MP.
Stapleton's parliamentary career "was conducted largely in support of the interests of other sugar plantation owners in the West Indies."
Ham House, Greater London District
The Ham House was built in the early 17th century for James I, who gave it to his son Prince Henry.
It was later owned by Elizabeth Murray Countess of Dysart, later Countess and Duchess of Lauderdale, who married John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 1st Duke of Lauderdale.
The Trust's report states that Lauderdale & # 39; was a signatory to the Royal Charter, establishing the Royal English Merchant Adventurers Company Trading to Africa (later the Royal African Company), which had a monopoly on the trade in ivory, gold and slaves along the west coast from had Africa & # 39 ;.
Hatchlands Park, Surrey
Hatchlands Park has a stately home that dates back to 1756 and was listed as a Historic Monument in 2007.
The Trust says it was built for Admiral Edward Boscawen, who was tasked with protecting British interests in India.
Boscawen led the siege of Pondicherry in 1748 with a young Robert Clive under his command.
It was sold in 1770 to a lawyer who worked for the East India Company in 1770.
William Brightwell Sumner is said to have had a lucrative career in India.
Hinton Ampner, Hampshire
Hinton Ampner is a Grade II listed mansion and garden that was built in 1790.
It was added to the list of trusts associated with colonialism and slavery as it was once inhabited by Mary Bilson-Legge, 1st Baroness Stawell and her husband, Wills Hill, Lord Hillsborough.
Lord Hillsborough was President of the Board of Trade and Plantations (1763-1765) and Secretary of State for the Colonies.
From 1765 to 1772 the house was leased from 1765 to 1772 to William Henry Rickett, whose "lifestyle was supported by his ownership of a plantation in Jamaica which he visited several times".
Hughenden Manor, Buckinghamshire
Hughenden Manor is a Victorian mansion that was the family home of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli from 1848 until his death.
The role of the Trust Note Disraeli following the dissolution of the East India Company and the Government of India Act in 1858 which transferred control of British India to the Crown.
As Prime Minister, Disraeli invited Queen Victoria to accept the title of Empress of India, which she assumed in May 1876. This title lasted until it was dropped in 1948 with the passage of India's Independence Act (1947).
This palace dates back to the mid-15th century and is one of the largest houses in the country, measuring up to four hectares.
It was listed by the National Trust as it was inherited in 1609 by Richard Sackville, 3rd Earl of Dorset.
The Trust's report states: “Its household and servants were over 100, and in the Great Hall seating plan from 1613 to 1624 there are Grace Robinson at the laundry table and John Morockoe with the kitchen and laundry staff. Both names are provided with "a Blackamoor".
Sackville's descendants have held prominent political roles, including the governor of the Somers Island Company and the governor of China.
Leith Hill Tower and Landscape, Surrey
The Leith Hill Tower was built in the 18th century and is 19.5 meters high. It once consisted of two neatly furnished rooms.
The Trust notes that it was included on the list because it once belonged to William Philip Perrin, who inherited five sugar plantations in Jamaica from his father with 135 enslaved people.
Morden Hall Park, Greater London District
This park covers 50 hectares – the equivalent of 93 soccer fields – and has the Morden Hall.
The National Trust says this sprawling property thrived in the 18th century due to its association with snuff mills.
The report says that when the property was bought by the Hatfield family in the mid-19th century, the family relied on sourcing tobacco from plantations in Virginia.
The Hatfeild family is also said to have benefited from marital relationships with the Taddy and Gilliat families, "who both benefited from the tobacco and cotton industries."
Osterley Park and HouseMiddlesex
Osterley House, whose interior was used as a doppelganger for Wayne Manor in the movie Dark Knight Rises, has traditionally served as a retreat for wealthy families looking to escape the big cities.
The property was purchased by Sir Francis Child the Elder in 1713. The report notes the Child family's links with the East India Company, which are believed to have increased the family's wealth.
It is also said that the house was decorated with Chinese porcelain and Indian textiles.
Owletts in Kent is a Grade II listed building from the mid 17th century.
The renowned architect Sir Herbert Baker was born there in 1862. Baker designed many public buildings in South Africa and India at the height of the British Empire.
He also designed houses for many government officials, including Cecil John Rhodes, Prime Minister of the Cape Colony.
The report adds, "Baker also designed the India House and South Africa House in London, which are still used today by the Indian and South African high commissions."
Petworth, West Sussex
Petworth House is a Grade II listed 17th-century country house owned by the noted Wyndam family since 1750.
George O'Brien Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont (1751–1837), assisted the writer Charlotte Smith in an unsuccessful attempt to resolve her financial affairs by serving briefly as trustee of her late father-in-law's estate, the East India Company , acted director and plantation owner Richard Smith.
In assuming this role, Egremont was quoted in the battle for Smith's estate in Barbados.
Egremont's two younger brothers had royal appointments in the West Indies from childhood.
They have never visited the islands and their roles have been leased to MPs. Percy Charles Wyndham (1757-1833) was the registry in Chancery in Jamaica and secretary and clerk in Barbados, and Charles William Wyndham (1760-1828) was the secretary of the island of Jamaica.
Although there is no family connection, Petworth contains the portraits of the Circassian Teresia Sampsonia and her husband Sir Robert Shirley.
Shirley was a diplomat to the Persian Shah Abbas. The portraits painted by Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599–1641) show the couple in Persian court clothes.
Polesden Lacey, Surrey
In the early eighteenth century, Polesden Lacey was owned by the Moore family.
From the church records of 1720 the baptism of "Zebedee, an Indian boy who is a little younger than twenty years and Arthur Moore Esq. Belongs" emerges.
Arthur Moore was a financier and MP who has held numerous lucrative appointments that closely involve him in colonial affairs and the slave trade.
These included the commissioner responsible for trade and plantations as well as the directorships of the Royal African Company and the South Sea Company.
Moore used this wealth to build Fetcham Park and buy Polesden Lacey.
Under the surname Lovemoore, the life of Zebedee can be traced in correspondence and church records.
He married Mary Fellows in 1726, had several children, and continued to work for the Moore family.
Sheffield Park and Gardens, Sussex
Sheffield Park and Garden belonged to the West family.
Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr (1577–1618), was named first Lord Governor of the Virginia Company of London in 1609 and a year later was appointed lifelong captain general of Virginia.
The Delaware tribe, bay and river, and the US state are named after him.
When he returned to the colony of Virginia from a trip to England, he died at sea and is believed to be buried in Jamestown.
Stowe was owned by the same family from 1589 to 1921.
Among the Stowe Papers is a 1715 sales contract for 272 enslaved people and ivory that was bought in Guinea and sold in Jamaica, possibly linked to Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham.
The temple's nephew, the Rt. Hon. George Grenville was the father of William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, a politician who campaigned for the abolition of the slave trade.
As Prime Minister, he proposed and administered the Slave Trade Act (1807). His nephew Richard, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, married Anne Elizabeth Brydges (1779-1836).
Anne had inherited the Hope Estate and its enslaved people through her mother Anna Eliza, who in turn inherited from her first husband, Roger Hope Elletson.
Sutton House, Greater London District
Sutton House is a Grade II listed building in Hackney that was built in the 16th century for a Tudor courtier.
It was placed on the National Trust list because between 1624 and 1641 it "belonged to an East India Company merchant named Captain John Milward, a merchant of luxury goods, particularly silk".
The report notes that Milward's older brother Humphrey was one of the 214 founders of the East India Company.
West Wycombe Park, Buckinghamshire
The National Trust states that West Wycombe Park has ties to the East India Company and was once owned by Samuel Dashwood and his brother Sir Francis Dashwood, 1st Baronet.
According to the report, the brothers were successful London merchants who imported silk and other luxury goods.
Samuel was appointed lieutenant governor of the East India Company in 1700 and Lord Mayor of London two years later.
Francis, also a councilor for the city, was the largest importer of silk from Smyrna in Turkey in 1680 and had connections with Elihu Yale, the representative of the East India Company in Madras.
Belton House, Lincolnshire
Belton House is a Grade II listed country house built between 1685 and 1688 and inherited in 1807 by John Cust, 1st Earl Brownlow.
His second wife, Caroline Fludyer's family had benefited from government contracts in the North American colonies, and his father-in-law, George Fludyer, voted for Charles James Fox's 1783 bill to challenge the power of the East India Company.
In 1821 John's younger brother, Sir Edward Cust, 1st Baronet, married Mary Anne Boode (1799-1882), the daughter of a powerful Dutch family of slavers.
Edward and John became joint trustees and executors of the estate of Margaret Boode (Mary's mother), Greenwich Park, British Guiana, including 185 enslaved people.
Berrington Hall, Herefordshire
Berrington Hall was built between 1778 and 1781 for Thomas Harley, an MP and banker.
Using his wife's wealth, Harley started a company that supplied clothing and wages to the army during the American Revolutionary War.
According to the National Trust, its banking partnership with Harley Cameron & Co. had Indian shipping interests but collapsed in 1797.
In 1772 he chaired a secret parliamentary committee on East Indian affairs and presented a bill restricting the East India Company.
He later voted against Charles James Fox & # 39; East India Bill, which was supposed to change the balance of power between government and business.
Harley's fifth daughter, Margaret, married Sir John Boyd, 2nd Baronet.
The National Trust states that Boyd co-owned plantations on St. Vincent and St. Kitts with between 170 and 200 people enslaved. He had inherited the plantations from his father, Sir John Boyd, 1st Baronet, who was vice chairman of the East India Company from 1759 to 1760.
Calke Abbey, Derbyshire
The Harpur family acquired the Calke Estate in 1622.
A new mansion containing parts of an older Elizabethan house was built between 1701 and 1704 for Sir John Harpur, 4th Baronet.
His sister Anne Harpur married Borlase Warren of Stapleford, Nottinghamshire.
He was the grandfather of Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, who was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the consolidated squadrons of North America, Jamaica and the Leeward Islands in 1812 during the Anglo-American War.
Sir John Harpur's son Edward married Mary Newton, daughter of Samuel Newton of Kings Bromley, Staffordshire, in 1741.
The Newton family owned the Newton Plantation of the same name in Barbados since the late 17th century.
Sir John's daughter Catherine Harpur married Sir Henry Gough, MP and merchant of the East India Company (1735–51).
Charlecote Park, Warwickshire
Charlecote Park is a grand 16th-century mansion surrounded by its own park on the banks of the River Avon.
According to the Trust, Charlecote Park has been the home of the Lucy family since the late 12th century.
The present house was built by Sir Thomas Lucy in the 1550s.
His great-great-grandson Thomas Lucy inherited the property in 1677 and served as captain of the household guard during the Dutch wars of the 1670s.
A portrait of Godfrey Kneller in the National Trust collection shows Lucy "with an unknown young black groom or a side wearing a metal collar".
The Trust's report says the Charlecote collection contains a number of objects related to the Siege of Lucknow, India, including an 18th century silver sword and scabbard.
Coughton Court, Warwickshire
Coughton Court was built in the 16th century and was once used in the BBC series Father Brown.
The Coughton mansion had long been owned by the Throckmorton family and Elizabeth Throckmorton became the gentlewoman of Elizabeth I's secret chamber.
In 1591 she secretly married Sir Walter Ralegh, who had tried unsuccessfully between 1585 and 1590 to found the first English colony on Roanoke Island, now North Carolina.
In 1763 Sir Robert Throckmorton, 4th Baronet, married Lucy Heywood. There were no children from the marriage.
Lucy's grandfather, Sir Abraham Elton, 2nd Baronet, was a slave trader and politician.
Croft Castle, Herefordshire
Croft was held by Bernard de Croft at the time of the Domesday Book (1086).
The National Trust says the castle continued to be owned by the Croft family until debt incurred during the South Sea Company crash forced its sale by Sir Archer Croft, 2nd Baronet, in 1746.
His father, Sir Herbert Croft, 1st Baronet (approx. 1652–1720), was involved in the East India Company, as was his father-in-law Thomas Archer (approx. 1619–85).
Through his marriage to Sophia Cleeve (1754–92), Rev. Sir Herbert Croft, 5th Baronet (1751–1816), executor of the estate of his mother-in-law Elizabeth Cleeve in Antigua (not prosecuted) and a reverse interest in the estate could be part of 1779 their marriage agreement.
Croome Court, Worcestershire
Croome D & # 39; Abitot was bought by Sir Thomas Coventry in 1592.
In 1715 Gilbert Coventry, 4th Earl of Coventry, married Anne Master, the daughter of Sir Streynsham Master, who had joined the East India Company in 1659 and became Governor of Fort St. George, Madras, in 1677.
1821 married William Coventry, son of George William, 7th Earl (1758-1831), Mary Laing in Jamaica.
Mary was the daughter of James Laing, who together with his partners owned or was associated with 48 plantations.
The largest estate in Goshen, St. Ann, had over 450 enslaved people, according to the National Trust.
In 1835 Anna Maria Coventry (1766-1837), daughter-in-law of the 6th Earl, received compensation for six enslaved people on the Clifford Cottage Estate in St. Ann, Jamaica.
The Wolryche family's 16th-century fortified mansion in Dudmaston was replaced with the current house, built between 1695 and 1701 for Sir Thomas Wolryche, 3rd Baronet.
The property later passed to the Whitmore family in the 18th century and was inherited by William Wolryche-Whitmore in 1815.
As a Whig MP for Bridgnorth and later for Wolverhampton, he focused on trade, agriculture and commerce.
He was a member of the East India Committee, where he warned of the effects of British colonialism on the Indian economy and campaigned for an improvement in the working life of the Indian population, for example those who work in the indigo trade.
Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire
Generations of the Cavendish family, the former owners of Hardwick Hall, had colonial interests, including William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire, son of Elizabeth Talbot (Bess of Hardwick), Countess of Shrewsbury.
Cavendish was involved in the Russia Company, Somers Island Company and North-West Passage Company, as well as in the East India Company.
Lord William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, grandson of the 4th Duke of Devonshire, was Governor General of India and led a period of social, economic and political reform.
According to the National Trust, he also made an unsuccessful claim on a plantation in Trinidad as an incumbrancer (someone who has a legal claim to an estate) under the marriage contract of Marc René, Count of Montalembert (1810-70).
Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire
Kedleston Hall, referred to as the "Temple of the Arts" in the house's first travel guide in 1769, was built from 1758 for Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Baron Scarsdale.
Alfred Nathaniel Curzon, 4th Baron Scarsdale, married Blanche Senhouse, granddaughter of Sir Joseph Senhouse, owner of estates in Dominica and Tobago.
In 1776, Senhouse's Dominican plantation and its enslaved people were valued at £ 11,607.
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Viscount Scarsdale, was Secretary of State for India in 1891 and Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905.
During his tenure, he carried out many reforms, but resisted calls by Indian nationalists for greater government participation.
In 1732 Lyveden passed to Anne Robinson, Lady Gowran, the wife of Richard Fitzpatrick, 1st Baron Gowran, and the granddaughter of Sir John Robinson, 1st Baronet.
In den 1660er und 1670er Jahren war Sir John Mitglied der Levant Company, der East India Company und der Company of Royal Adventurers Trading in Africa sowie stellvertretender Gouverneur der Hudson Bay Company.
Lyveden wurde durch die weibliche Linie geerbt, und Robert Vernon Smith wurde 1859 zum 1. Baron Lyveden ernannt.
Robert legte 1830 eine Petition zur Abschaffung der Sklaverei vor und war Mitglied des Auswahlausschusses für den westindischen Handel.
Er war Staatssekretär für die Kolonien und Präsident des Kontrollrats und beaufsichtigte die East India Company während der Großen Rebellion Indiens.
Der National Trust-Bericht besagt, dass Shugborough 1624 von William Anson, einem Rechtsanwalt von Lincoln's Inn, erworben und von seinen beiden Urenkel ausgiebig weiterentwickelt wurde.
Im Jahr 1740 umrundete Admiral Anson den Globus und unternahm offizielle Piraterie auf dem von Spanien kontrollierten Amerika.
Er segelte 1742 nach Canton (heute Guangzhou) und eroberte im folgenden Jahr die spanische Galeone Nuestra Señora de Covadonga vor der Pazifikküste und sammelte fast ein Drittel des Silberwerts von 400.000 Pfund an Bord.
Shugborough wurde 1773 von Thomas Ansons Neffen George Adams, später Anson, geerbt.
Seine Tochter Mary Anson heiratete Sir Francis Ford, 1. Baronet, der bekanntermaßen bis zu sieben Plantagen in Barbados besaß.
Sudbury Hall, Derbyshire
Sudbury Hall wurde in die Liste aufgenommen, da es laut National Trust in den 1660er Jahren für George Vernon gebaut wurde, dessen dritte Frau Catherine die Tochter von Sir Thomas Vernon war, einem Direktor der East India Company.
Katharinas Schwester Judith heiratete John Aislabie, einen ehemaligen Schatzkanzler, der 1721 nach dem Zusammenbruch der South Sea Company zum Rücktritt gezwungen wurde.
George Venables Vernon, 1. Baron Vernon, der Enkel von George Vernon, heiratete 1733 Mary Howard.
Der Bericht stellt fest, dass ihre Schwester Anne, die Frau von Sir William Yonge, 4. Baronet, zusammen mit einer schwarzen männlichen Seite erscheint, die ein Metall-Sklavenhalsband auf einem Porträt von 1737 in der Sudbury Hall-Sammlung trägt.
Tattershall Schloss, Lincolnshire
Diese Burg stammt aus dem 13. Jahrhundert, wurde aber im 15. Jahrhundert größtenteils wieder aufgebaut.
Der Trust stellt fest, dass es von Edward Fiennes de Clinton, 9. Baron Clinton, gekauft wurde, der 1572 zum 1. Earl of Lincoln ernannt wurde.
Thomas Clinton, 3. Earl of Clinton, ein Nachkomme, lieferte 1619 Artillerie an die East India Company.
Sein Sohn Theophilus Clinton, 4. Earl, unterstützte die Absichten anderer Puritaner bei der Gründung der Massachusetts Bay Company und der Gründung ihrer Kolonie in Nordamerika.
Mount Stewart, Grafschaft unten
The National Trust's list includes Mount Stewart as, according to the report, in 1744 Alexander Stewart, 'descendant of Scottish plantation landowners in County Donegal, used the immense dowry of his wife, Mary Cowan, to purchase land in County Down, including an estate that he renamed Mount Stewart'.
Mary was Alexander Stewart’s cousin, but also heiress to her brother, Sir Robert Cowan, an East India Company merchant who had pursued a career trading in coffee and other commodities in Lisbon and the Yemen before becoming the Company’s Governor of Bombay in India.
According to the National Trust, Sir William Armstrong, who owned Cragside, was a Newcastle upon Tyne-born industrialist, designer and manufacturer of arms.
His work led to his knighthood in 1859 and his simultaneous appointment as government engineer for rifled ordnance and superintendent of the royal gun factory at Woolwich.
The report states: 'During the four years he was working directly with the government, it placed over £1 million worth of orders for Armstrong breech-loading guns.
'The arms were used by British military forces in conflicts across the globe, including those relating to imperial interests, and were also used in the American Civil War.'
Dunham Massey, Cheshire
The hall at Dunham Massey was built in 1616 by Sir George Booth who married Mary, daughter of the East India Company merchant John Oldbury in 1702.
The report states there is a family connection to colonial South Africa through Harry Grey, 8th Earl of Stamford, who lived in Cape Colony and married Martha Solomon(s).
After Harry’s death, his son, John Grey, was considered the rightful heir to the Stamford title and a seat in the House of Lords under Dutch law in South Africa, but not English law, as he had been born outside of marriage.
The seat was granted to Grey’s nephew, William Grey (1850– 1910), who became the 9th Earl of Stamford.
Fountains Abbey and Studley Royal, North Yorkshire
This abbey, one of the largest and best preserved ruined monasteries in England, was built in 1132 and was pillaged under the rule of Henry VIII in 1539.
The abbey is situated in Studley Royal Park and is included in the list because John Aislabie of Studley Royal supported the South Sea Company’s proposition to take over the national debt in exchange for government bonds.
The report notes that, having received a £20,000 bribe in company stock in exchange for promoting the scheme, Aislabie negotiated the South Sea contract and got the bill passed in the House of Commons.
It adds: 'He was serving as British Chancellor of the Exchequer when the South Sea Company collapsed in 1720.
'Aislabie was forced to resign the following year, shortly before a report into the collapse was published. He was found guilty of corruption, expelled from the House of Commons and imprisoned in the Tower of London.'
Hare Hill, Cheshire
William Hibbert purchased Hare Hill in 1797 and the property was inherited by his son, William Tetlow Hibbert, who lived there until 1879.
The Hibbert family accumulated substantial wealth through trading enslaved people and the goods produced using enslaved labour across three generations.
William and William Tetlow Hibbert were partners in the family business, based at the West India trading house in London.
It owned ships and quays, and organised the transport, insurance and distribution of commodities produced through enslaved labour, particularly sugar.
The Hibberts were prominent defenders of slavery during the abolition campaign.
Nostell, West Yorkshire
The National Trust report states that the Winn family acquired the Nostell Estate in the mid-seventeenth century.
Archival records suggest that Sir Rowland Winn, 4th Baronet, invested in both the South Sea Company and the East India Company.
The cabinetmaker Thomas Chippendale supplied much of the furniture and furnishings at Nostell.
The report notes that the Thomas Chippendale Account entry from 20 January 1770 in the West Yorkshire archive includes ‘2 Blankets for the housekeepers & the blacks bed’, at a cost of £1 3s. 0d.
Nunnington Hall, North Yorkshire
According to the National Trust report, Nunnington Hall was purchased in 1839 by William Rutson.
William was the main beneficiary of his father’s will, and his personal wealth can be directly connected to his father’s business activities.
The family of William’s wife, Charlotte Mary Ewart, were linked through business to the Rutsons.
Rutson’s grandfather, who was also called William Rutson, was a cotton merchant and slave-trader who operated from Liverpool as a partner in the firm Backhouse and Rutson, described as ‘African traders’.
Between 1780 and 1793, William the Elder was involved in financing, or part-financing, at least 42 voyages transporting enslaved Africans.
Quarry Bank Mill, Cheshire
Quarry Bank Mill has been included by the National Trust because Samuel Greg built the mill in 1783.
It notes that although 'Greg did not rely directly on his Caribbean estate earnings to enter the cotton trade, his wealth was partly due to the wider family engagement in businesses related to slavery through several generations'.
His uncle, John Greg, had been the first Government Commissioner for the sale of land in the West Indies.
Rufford Old Hall, Lancashire
The Trust's report states that Rufford Old Hall is linked by marriage to the early colonisation of North America through Lucy Rigby, who married Robert Hesketh of Rufford in 1641.
In 1643, Lucy’s father, Colonel Alexander Rigby, purchased the ‘plough patent’, which gave him control of the independent province of Lygonia in New England, an area in the southern part of presentday Maine.
Lygonia was one of eight patents for new provinces created by the Plymouth Council, designed to encourage English settlement and develop local farming and forestry economies.
Seaton Delaval Hall, Northumberland
Seaton Delaval Hall has been identified on the Trust's list because of the Delaval family's links to colonialism.
The report notes that Admiral George Delaval (c.1668–1723) purchased stock in the South Sea Company in 1711, the year of its formation, and maintained his shares until at least 1720.
In the report, it states Sir John Hussey Delaval assumed a leading role in his family’s estates, and in 1766 'sought advice on how to set up and manage a sugar plantation from Joseph Manesty, a Liverpool slave-trader'.
Manesty’s detailed response includes, for example, lists of necessary tools and equipment, appropriate furnishings for the ‘Masters House’ and the number of people required, including ‘3 white servants … 10 Negro Men … 10 negro women’.
Speke Hall, Merseyside
This Grade I listed building was constructed by Sir William Norris who was MP for Liverpool (1695–1701) and concerned with protecting the city’s tobacco and sugar interests, according to the National Trust.
In 1696, he audited the East India Company accounts, and in 1698, chaired the Parliamentary Africa Select Committee.
Another of William’s brothers, Richard Norris, traded tobacco from Virginia and sugar from the West Indian plantations that enslaved Africans.
In 1795, Speke was sold to Richard Watt I who 'owned the Saint George’s Plain Estate, Jamaica, and, in partnership with Alexander Allardyce, traded in slave-produced rum and sugar'.
Wallington Hall, Northumberland
This Grade I listed building passed to the Trevelyan family in 1777.
The National Trust say that in 1757, John, 4th Baronet Trevelyan of Nettlecombe, married the daughter of Peter Simond, who owned seven sugar plantations on Grenada, many in partnership with his adopted son, John Peter Hankey.
Washington Old Hall, Tyne and Wear
The National Trust states that Washington Old Hall incorporates the medieval foundations of the property and is 'owned by the ancestors of George Washington, the first President of the United States, founding father of the American Constitution and holder of enslaved people in Mount Vernon, Virginia'.
The report notes that there are a number of notable objects in the collection associated with George and Martha Washington.
Wentworth Castle Gardens, South Yorkshire
Thomas Wentworth was owner of Wentworth Castle from 1708 to 1739.
The National Trust's report states that 'following his military service, Wentworth began a diplomatic career, first as envoy and later Ambassador to Berlin, the Hague and Ambassador-Extraordinary to Brandenburg-Prussia'.
In 1711, Wentworth was appointed as joint negotiator for the Treaty of Utrecht. As part of these negotiations in 1713, Britain signed a contract with Spain giving it exclusive rights, through the South Sea Company, to supply enslaved Africans to the Spanish territories, known as the asiento de negros.
Barrington Court, Somerset
The National Trust say they acquired Barrington Court in 1907, in a derelict condition.
From 1920, Barrington was leased and restored by Colonel Abram Arthur Lyle, using architectural salvage collected from other houses.
Lyle was the grandson of the founder of Abram Lyle & Sons, a sugar-producing company of which the colonel became director, and which merged to form Tate & Lyle in 1921.
Both businesses were established after the abolition of slavery. The early nineteenth and early twentieth century British sugar industry was predominantly supplied by Caribbean plantations, founded under colonialism and supported by enslaved labour.
Bath Assembly Rooms, Somerset
Bath and its ‘New’ or ‘Upper’ Assembly Rooms were connected to wider colonial and slavery economies of the eighteenth century.
The Assembly Rooms were designed by John Wood the Younger and opened in 1771.
They were funded by a tontine subscription, a form of group life-annuity investment in which survivors benefit from the deaths of other participants.
James Leigh–Perrot, one such founding investor, was the maternal uncle of the author Jane Austen.
In 1764, he married Jane Cholmeley, who was born in Barbados to Robert Cholmeley and latterly the sister-in-law of the Barbados Governor William Spry.
The couple lived part of the year in Bath, and it is believed Jane LeighPerrot was heiress to her father’s plantations. Executors for her mother, Ann Workman (d.1790), sold a plantation in 1791.
Buckland Abbey, Devon
The National Trust report states that Buckland Abbey was acquired by the Grenville family in 1541.
Sir Richard Grenville (1542–91), an MP and naval commander, converted the monastic buildings around 1576.
As Sheriff of Cork, Ireland, he transplanted over 100 English settlers.
It is likely he invested in Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s ‘New World’ expeditions of 1578 and 1583.
In 1585, Grenville sailed colonists to establish Roanoke (now North Carolina), ordered the destruction of the Native American Aquascogoc village as punishment for a missing silver cup, and transported to Bideford a Native American, who was baptised in 1588 as ‘Raleigh a Wynganditoian’ and died a year later.
In 1581, Sir Francis Drake bought Buckland and made alterations.
Drake’s kinsman, John Hawkins, initiated the English triangular slave trade route from 1562, and Drake sailed on his ships.
In 1572, Drake met Diego, an escaped enslaved African, when attacking the Spanish town of Nombre de Dios in present-day Panama.
Castle Drogo, Devon
Castle Drogo was built for the tea-merchant Julius Drewe and designed by the architect of New Delhi, Sir Edwin Lutyens.
At the age of 18, Drewe was sent to China as a tea-buyer by his uncle, Francis Peek, a partner in Liverpool tea-merchants Peek and Winch.
Julius’s great uncle, Richard Peek, one of the three brothers who founded Peek and Winch, was an abolitionist and philanthropist who was on the organising committee of the anti-slavery conventions held in London in 1840 and 1843.
The Peek and Winch company later expanded into coffee, cocoa, rubber and spices, and owned plantations in the Dutch East Indies. In 1878, Drewe returned to Liverpool and opened the Willow Pattern Tea Store.
Clevedon Court, Somerset
According to the National Trust, Sir Abraham Elton I purchased Clevedon Court in 1709.
He was an industrialist, merchant, MP, alderman, Mayor of Bristol and member and Master of the city’s Society of Merchant Venturers.
Elton’s commercial activities included brass and iron foundries, tin and calamine mines, glass and pottery works, salt production and cloth weaving.
Many of these products were exported to Africa, stocking ships he owned that transported enslaved Africans to Jamaica, Barbados and Carolina.
Compton Castle and Greenway, Devon
The Gilbert family owned both Compton Castle and Greenway since the Middle Ages.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, MP, soldier, explorer and half-brother of Sir Walter Ralegh, fought in Ireland and attempted to establish a colony.
In 1578, he received letters patent to seek out new lands in the Americas, which led to an unsuccessful voyage the same year.
In 1583, he sailed to Newfoundland and claimed the first ‘New World’ territory for England since John Cabot in 1497.
Gilbert died returning from the expedition when his ship Squirrel sank near the Azores.
In 1606, Gilbert’s son Captain Raleigh Gilbert jointly received letters patent for the Virginia Company of Plymouth and, in 1607, led the establishment of the short-lived Popham Colony in Maine.
The National Trust report states that the Edgcumbes were an established Cornish family, who acquired Cotehele in 1353 through marriage.
Successive generations were highly active in regional politics, military and mining activities.
In 1741, Edgecombe County in North Carolina was named for Richard Edgcumbe, who was made 1st Baron Edgcumbe the following year, and was a member of the Board of Trade which, along with the Secretaries of State, was responsible for British colonial affairs, particularly those in North America.
A settlement called Edgecomb in Lincoln County, Maine, was, according to the American Geological Survey of 1905, ‘named for Lord Edgecombe, a friend of the American colonies’.
Dyrham Park, Gloucestershire
George Wynter and Sir William MP, naval commanders of Lydney, Gloucestershire, bought Dyrham Park in 1571.
Wynter owned vessels sailed in John Hawkins’s slave-trading voyages in the 1560s.
George’s son, John, captained Sir Francis Drake’s circumnavigation of 1577.
John’s great-granddaughter, Mary Wynter, the sole Dyrham heiress, married William Blathwayt MP in 1686.
Blathwayt was brought up by his uncle Thomas Povey, an MP and colonial administrator.
Povey co-authored ‘Overtures’ for Oliver Cromwell (in 1654) that defined government colonial management, sat on colonial committees and councils, and was a member of the Royal African Company.
Glastonbury Tor, Somerset
In 1825 the Rev. Hon. George Neville-Grenville inherited Butleigh Court including Glastonbury Tor.
In 1836, Neville administered compensation of £6,630 5s. 6d. for 379 enslaved people at the Hope Estate, St Andrew, Jamaica, owned by Richard Temple-Nugent-BrydgesChandos-Grenville, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos of Stowe.
Neville was acting as trustee for the marriage settlement benefiting the Duke’s son and heir, Richard (1797–1861).
Sir William Godolphin MP died without children and left the Godolphin Estates to his brother, Sidney, 1st Earl of Godolphin and the Lord Treasurer.
The Earl of Godolphin oversaw financial restructuring of the Treasury, including financing the costly War of Spanish Succession.
This was aided by his negotiations in 1707 for the consolidation of the East India Company and the New India Company, with special privileges in return for a loan to the government of over £3 million.
Another brother, Charles, who also worked in the Treasury, was a Commissioner of Customs, a director in the Royal African Company and an East India Company investor.
Kingston Lacy and Corfe Castle, Dorset
Henry Bankes MP inherited Kingston Lacy and Corfe Castle from his father in 1776, and in 1784 married the daughter of a plantation owner and Governor of the Leeward Islands.
The same year he commissioned architect Robert Furze Brettingham to remodel Kingston Lacy.
Henry and Frances’s son and heir, William John Bankes MP, made an unsuccessful claim in 1836, as a Woodley trustee, for compensation of £2,925 4s. 2d. for 172 enslaved people on St Kitts.
According to the National Trust, William John undertook a Grand Tour between 1813 and 1822, mostly travelling through Egypt and Syria.
He accumulated one of the largest private collections of ancient-Egyptian artefacts, including the Philae obelisk (2nd century BC).
Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire
The National Trust states that John Rock Grosett MP was a plantation owner who leased Lacock Abbey during the 1820s.
He was the son of Schaw Grosett, a merchant of Clifton, Bristol, and Mary Rock.
John Rock Grosett married his cousin, Mary Spencer Shirley, and through his father, mother and wife received a combined inheritance of at least three Jamaican estates: Chepstow Pen and Spring Gardens Estate in St George, and Petersfield in St Thomas-inthe-East.
In 1822, he joined the Standing Committee of The London Society of West India Planters and Merchants and supported planters’ interests in Parliament.
This Grade I listed building came under the ownership of the Robartes family in the 17th century.
The National Trust report states that the family has ties to colonialism because 'John Robartes, 1st Earl of Radnor, held senior governmental roles, including Privy Councillor, Lord Privy Seale and, briefly, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland'.
They go on to note that he sat on successive influential colonial groups, including the Committee for Trade and Plantations, the Council of Trade, the Council for Foreign Plantations and the Board of Trade.
He was also a member of various companies, including the Providence Company and the Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England.
Thomas Benson was Sheriff of Devon and the MP for Barnstaple, as well as a smuggler and practitioner of piracy.
The National Trust says that in 1747, he gained a contract to ship convicts to Virginia and Maryland, but instead shipped them to Lundy, where he employed them as slave labour.
In the subsequent court case, Benson argued that transporting the convicts to Lundy was no different from transporting them to the Americas, and his interpretation of the law was upheld.
Newark Park, Gloucestershire
According to the National Trust, Sir Thomas Lowe purchased Newark Park in 1593.
Sir Thomas was a cloth merchant, MP, Mayor of London, Master of the Haberdashers’ Company and Governor of both the Merchant Adventurers (of London) and the Levant Company.
His maiden speech as an MP in 1607 petitioned on behalf of Mediterranean and West Indies merchants.
In 1769, James Clutterbuck bought Newark Park.
A mercer and banker from London, he left Newark Park to his godson, Rev. Lewis Clutterbuck.
Rev. Clutterbuck’s son, Lewis II, married the daughter of William Balfour of Martha Brae, Trelawney, Jamaica.
In the compensation records, Sarah Clutterbuck was awarded £290 11s. 9d. for 12 enslaved people in St James, Jamaica, in 1836, and made an unsuccessful claim of £2,169 4s. 2d. for 98 enslaved people from the Retirement Estate, St Ann, Jamaica, in 1839.
According to the National Trust, James Bagg MP, a merchant and Mayor of Plymouth in Devon, purchased Saltram around 1614.
The report notes that 'he invested in the Virginia Company of Plymouth (established in 1606) and its successor, the Plymouth Council for New England (established in 1620), along with his son and heir, Sir James Bagg MP, a merchant and Deputy-Mayor of Plymouth'.
In 1632, Sir James was elected to the Plymouth Council for New England. Both father and son were Comptrollers of Customs in Plymouth and Fowey, Cornwall.
Sherborne Park Estate, Gloucestershire
This historic estate has been included on the list because owner John Dutton, who inherited the Sherborne Park Estate in 1820, was an executor for the estate of Sir Rose Price, who had married his cousin, Elizabeth Lambert (1782–1826).
As co-executor, Lord Sherborne administered compensation of £3,579 3s. 2d. for 464 enslaved people at the Worthy Park Estate, St John, Jamaica, in 1836, but is unlikely to have personally benefited.
Shute Barton, Devon
The Trust notes that Sir William Templer Pole inherited from his father both Shute Barton (a partially demolished fourteenth-century house) and the newly-built New Shute House (which is not owned by the National Trust).
It states: 'In 1835, he received compensation from two estates, jointly inherited with kinsman Henry Coombe Compton from their great-grandfather, John Mills of Woodford Bridge, Essex.
'The awards were £2,512 8s. 0d. for 170 enslaved people at the Mills plantation and £2,784 8s. 4d. for 170 enslaved people at the Golden Rock plantation, both St Kitts.'
Snowshill Manor, Gloucestershire
Estate owner Abraham Solomon Wade of St Martin married Frances Paget of St Kitts.
Frances received compensation of £145 4s. 7d. for nine enslaved people in 1835.
Their son, Solomon Abraham Wade, was a merchant, agent and, latterly, plantation owner on St Kitts, receiving compensation in 1835 of £29 17s. 4d. for two enslaved people and shared £109 19s. 0d. for seven enslaved people.
The National Trust report states that Henry Hoare bought the Stourhead Estate by 1717 and between 1720 and 1725 demolished the earlier house for a new design by the architect Colen Campbell.
In 1719 Hoare inherited his father’s bank which, during the period of the South Sea Bubble (February to September 1720), earned him a profit of £21,000 (about £1.6 million in 2020).
The Bank’s commercial success was achieved by 'riding the bubble', through buying South Sea Company stock when it fell in price and selling it when it had a large rise.
Trengwainton Garden, Cornwall
Sir Rose Price, 1st Baronet purchased Trengwainton in 1814 and set about rebuilding the house and laying out gardens.
Price was descended from an established Cornish-Jamaican plantation-owning family who acquired 840 acres of land called Worthy Park in St John, Jamaica, in 1670.
Sir Rose Price owned or controlled multiple Jamaican plantations.
Following his death in 1834, his executors handled compensation claims from his estate, including £3,579 3s. 2d. for 464 enslaved people at Worthy Park in 1836, with a second successful claim at Worthy Park for £5,860 9s. 11d. in 1838, and another claim for £1,662 0s. 5d. for 79 enslaved people at Spring Garden, St Dorothy. Trengwainton was sold by mortgage holders in 1835.
According to the National Trust, William Gibbs, known as ‘the richest commoner in England’, purchased the Georgian house and estate at Tyntesfield in 1844.
It states: 'His great wealth, which enabled the complete remodelling of Tyntesfield from 1863, was accrued by his company Anthony Gibbs & Sons, which had held a monopoly for importing Peruvian bird-guano fertiliser.
'A. Gibbs & Sons’ guano business operated from 1842 to 1861 and, with pressure from external observers, workers’ conditions improved through increased pay and access to basic medical care.
'Yet most extraction was performed by indentured and often coerced Chinese laborers, working in slavery like conditions, alongside convicts, conscripts and army deserters, and, before the abolition of Peruvian slavery in 1854, enslaved people.
'In his youth, Gibbs was briefly employed by his uncle, George Gibbs (1753–1818) of the West Indian trading house which became Gibbs, Bright, and Co. This company later merged with A. Gibbs & Sons in 1881, and in 1887 the unprofitable WestIndies trading Bristol office was shut.'
Chirk Castle, Wrexham
Chirk Castle was built from 1295 for Roger Mortimer and 'some 300 years later, it was purchased by Sir Thomas Myddelton I' whom the Trust say was 'a prominent figure in late-sixteenth-century sugar trading, in investment in privateering activities, and in the East India Company'.
Myddelton was apprenticed to the London grocer Fernandino Poyntz, became a sugar trader in Antwerp around 1583, and later acquired a sugar refinery in Mincing Lane, London.
The Yorkes inherited Erddig from John Meller, who was a lawyer and Master of the High Court of Chancery.
The National Trust state that Meller bought Erddig in 1714, becoming sole owner in 1716.
It adds: 'The house was built by Joshua Edisbury. One of Edisbury’s benefactors, Elihu Yale, made his fortune with the East India Company as Governor of Fort St. George, Madras (now Chennai).
'Yale supported the establishment of Yale University, whose collection includes a painting of Yale with Lord James Cavendish, who married his daughter, and a black pageboy or servant wearing a collar.'
The Trust notes that Erddig’s income also came from the leasing of mineral rights to ironworks, including those at Bersham. There were links between the ironworking industry and the slave trade, although there are no confirmed connections with Erddig.
Paxton’s Tower, Carmarthenshire
Paxton’s Tower is a banqueting house formerly within the landscape of Middleton Hall (which is not owned by the National Trust).
The Trust states that in about 1789, the estate was purchased by William Paxton.
During the early 1770s, Paxton held the post of Assay Master of Fort William, Bengal, and in 1778 he was appointed Master of the Calcutta Mint.
He later became an East India Company agent and banker. Between 1793 and 1795, Paxton commissioned the architect Samuel Pepys Cockerell to design a Palladian mansion at Middleton, including the banqueting house.
As a Carmarthenshire MP, Paxton also invested in the local area, developing Tenby as a bathing resort and providing a piped-water supply to Carmarthen.
In 1824, Middleton was bought by Edward Hamlin Adams, who was born in Jamaica and possibly descended from the Adams family of Barbados.
He was a trustee in the Charlottenburg Estate and joint owner of a plantation at Port Royal, Jamaica, which documented 18 enslaved people in 1823.
The Trust state that between 1817 and 1829, Adams, Robertson and Co. supplied a number of enslaved men to foot regiments as ‘pioneers’.