Number 10 says the people of Britain "will be the first" to receive doses of Oxford University's Covid-19 vaccine if that works, a spokesman confirmed today.
The comment comes from claims that Donald Trump plans to accelerate the experimental vaccine to get it operational ahead of the US elections this fall.
White House insiders claim the US President is considering giving clearance for the emergency that is one of the most promising candidates in the world.
Early studies have shown promising results. Tests have shown that the vaccine, which is mass-produced by pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca, is safe to use in humans and elicits an immune response.
However, AstraZeneca said it had not entered into negotiations with the US and Prime Minister Boris Johnson's spokesman said the company had "signed a number of agreements with other countries" but the UK would be "first".
The only country in the world that has so far approved a vaccine against Covid-19 is Russia. But it came under fire for doing so without proper clinical trials.
Risks of using shocks that haven't been thoroughly tested include harmful side effects or administering shocks that don't actually work. If something goes wrong with an official vaccine, it could further undermine the already fragile public trust in vaccinations.
Introducing a vaccine and slowing the devastating coronavirus crisis in the US – the worst in the world – could look good for Mr Trump ahead of the November presidential election.
AstraZeneca, which claims it can manufacture 2 billion cans and already operates several facilities in America, has denied it is in talks with White House officials about getting the sting approved quickly. The US ordered 300 million doses of the vaccine last month.
Mr Trump will run against Democratic candidate Joe Biden, who was Barack Obama's Vice President from 2009 to 2017.
He has already put down his frustration with the slow process of vaccination, accusing the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of deliberately delaying evaluations until the election is over.
However, he announced significant progress yesterday when he confirmed that U.S. hospitals could now use blood plasma from recovered Covid-19 patients as emergency treatment, claiming it could reduce the risk of death by a third.
In the news that Mr Trump is considering speeding up the vaccine, one of Britain's leading doctors warned that there should be a "fair distribution" of all workloads and that richer countries should not be sucking up all supplies.
US President Donald Trump has watched his country suffer from one of the worst Covid-19 crises in the world, with more than 5.7 million officially confirmed cases of illness
The President's best hope of using the sting before the clinical trials are complete is to obtain FDA approval for "emergency use".
This is how people were informed of the situation he is considering, the Financial Times reported.
AUSTRALIA IS BUYING OXFORD Vaccine, BUT EXPERTS WARNING AGAINST RUSHING
Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison has signed a deal with pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca to receive a potential coronavirus vaccine if Oxford University's Phase 3 trials prove successful.
However, doctors have warned that a coronavirus vaccine can cause dangerous side effects and have come out against a policy that says no punch, no game is required.
Vaccine development is usually a long and complex process that can take up to 15 years.
Due to the urgency of the coronavirus pandemic, researchers are following their tests quickly and hope to achieve safe and effective vaccination by next year.
Australian Medical Association President Omar Khorshid said even positive Phase 3 studies – mass tests on members of the public – would not prove the vaccine candidate is safe.
"We have to acknowledge that this is a rushed approval process and even if the Phase 3 trials of this Oxford vaccine are going really well, it is still not absolutely proven to be safe, not as proven as it usually does, "he told The Age newspaper.
"That increases the risk of rare side effects … that we just don't know about."
The Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) was instrumental in accelerating the examination of the vaccine candidate at Oxford University.
In May, the CSIRO announced that it was already at the pre-clinical stage – a position that typically takes up to two years to achieve.
Dr. Khorshid said it was expected that the Oxford coronavirus vaccine would initially only be approved for adults in Australia.
He said the Australian government's proposal to force people to take the AstraZeneca vaccine by tying it to services like childcare, school or social security contributions could not be justified as it had been rushed by clinical trials.
Mr Morrison has said he wants to make an approved vaccine "as mandatory as possible" but it will not be mandatory.
Deputy Chief Medical Officer Nick Coatsworth said possible penalties for unvaccinated people could include not being able to go to restaurants, travel internationally or use public transport.
Professor Colin Pouton of the Monash University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences told The Age that it was important that people have the right to refuse.
Heidi Larson, professor of hygiene and tropical medicine at the University of London, said it was precisely the "no jab, no play" policy that sparked the anti-vaccination movement worldwide.
Emergency authorization allows officials to enforce medical devices without proper testing because there is a clear immediate need for them.
It was already used for drugs during the Covid-19 crisis, including the antiviral drug remdesivir, which scientists suspected could reduce the risk of death.
If the vaccine were granted emergency use, it could mean it would be pushed out after attempts on just 10,000 people, despite the FDA standard for 30,000 people or more.
Large studies are ongoing in the UK and around the world, but no results are expected in the coming months.
However, approval for the sting could come as early as September, according to an FT source briefed on a meeting between US politicians.
White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows and US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin reportedly confirmed the plan to Democrats in late July.
Senior Democratic politician Nancy Pelosi reportedly warned the government not to "cut corners".
Top officials said they would not advocate if Mr Trump enforced the vaccine with no data to prove it was safe.
Dr. Peter Marks, director of the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research within the FDA, said he would step down if that happened.
And the U.S. Department of Health's assistant secretary Michael Caputo denied that an emergency permit would be given.
Mr Caputo, who served on Donald Trump's campaign team in 2016, said: "Irresponsible talk of an unsafe or ineffective vaccine approved for public use is intended to undermine the president's response to the coronavirus," the FT reported.
Dr. Jenny Harries, England's assistant chief physician, commented on the prospect of vaccine acceleration in the US, saying that everyone around the world should have "fair and safe access to vaccine development."
Dr. Harries told Sky News, "We have a global crisis … It is really important that everyone around the world has fair and safe access to vaccine development.
“Obviously, the more developed countries have the opportunity to develop the vaccine and safely distribute it to their people. But I think all colleagues in public health would like a fair distribution. & # 39;
AstraZeneca, the company that makes and markets the vaccine, denied having spoken with the US about an early deal.
A statement said: “AstraZeneca has not discussed emergency use approval with the US government and it would be premature to speculate on this possibility.
"Late-stage Phase II / III studies for AZD1222 are currently ongoing in the UK and other markets around the world. We don't expect efficacy results until later this year."
The United States was one of the hardest hit countries in the world during the Covid-19 pandemic.
More than 5.7 million cases have been officially diagnosed and at least 176,808 people have died, according to Johns Hopkins University, which has been tracking the pandemic since it began in December.
President Trump has been accused of mistreating the crisis and refusing to face his administration's mistakes, shift the blame on others, and dispute statistics.
Last week, the president attacked the FDA, accusing it of dragging the process of preparing a vaccine.
He said in a Tweet: & # 39; The deep state or whoever at the FDA is making it very difficult for drug companies to get people to test the vaccines and therapeutics.
& # 39; Obviously they hope to postpone the answer until after November 3rd. Gotta focus on speed and save lives! & # 39;
The only country that has officially approved a coronavirus vaccine is Russia, but the circumstances have severely criticized the scientists.
Pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca (pictured chemist at its headquarters in Sydney, Australia) is already making the vaccine developed by Oxford University so that millions of doses are ready when it turns out to be effective
The sting at Oxford University is being tested in the UK, but also in other countries such as Brazil and South Africa, as there are more cases of Covid-19 there than in the UK. This is easier to test (Image: A study participant in South Africa receives the push)
The shock given to President Vladimir Putin's own daughter was reportedly tested on fewer than 40 people before it was officially approved.
One scientist has labeled Putin's move "unethical" because an "improperly tested vaccine" could have "catastrophic" effects on public health.
WHICH COUNTRIES HAVE ALREADY ORDERED OXFORD'S VACCINE?
The UK is hosting the research and development effort on the vaccine, which was developed by researchers at Oxford and manufactured by AstraZeneca, a Cambridge-based company.
The UK government has ordered 100 million doses of the sting and has already started manufacturing them so they will be ready for use when clinical trials are successful. The price paid was not disclosed.
The U.S. government has ordered 100 million doses of the vaccine and has contributed $ 1.2 billion (£ 910 million) to research and development of the vaccine.
European Union (EU)
The European Commission has reached an agreement for 300 million doses of the vaccine if its clinical trials work, with an option to buy an additional 100 million. The agreement was concluded on behalf of countries in the EU. The amount of money is unknown.
Australia has confirmed that it has ordered enough doses of the vaccine to deliver one to its entire population of 25 million people. It is not clear how many cans the nation ordered. Britain – with a population of 66 million but on the order of 100 million – has ordered more than it needs.
A company in China has signed a contract with AstraZeneca to manufacture at least 100 million doses of the vaccine.
Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products, based in Shenzhen, will increase the capacity to 200 million per year by the end of 2021.
A Russian company, R-Pharm, has also signed a contract to manufacture and distribute the vaccine. However, it is unclear how many vaccines it will make or what it will pay to AstraZeneca.
Brazilian officials have allocated $ 360 million (£ 274 million) for at least 100 million doses of the vaccine. Brazil is currently in one of the worst Covid-19 crises in the world, with more than 3.6 million official cases and 114,000 deaths.
While others warned that there is "no data" to say whether the Russian vaccine is effective.
Another expert warned that "the harm from the release of a vaccine that was not safe and effective would make our current problems insurmountable".
An expert in the UK said it was "worrying" that world leaders could speed up or enforce vaccines without proper safety testing in order to generate political gains.
Professor Danny Altmann, an immunology expert at Imperial College London, said, “It should be incredibly worrying for the global medical community to see possible attempts by politicians, whether in Russia, the US or elsewhere, to try to manipulate, in short In any way affect or influence agreed scientific protocols that are in place for the careful evaluation of the comparative safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness of vaccines.
"In the decades to come, we will not remember which politician asked a few more or less votes, but we really will not forget any failed opportunities to put in place the safest and most effective global programs to eradicate this pandemic."
While small studies can show whether a vaccine is likely to be safe, the month-long or year-long Phase III tests that measure effectiveness have not yet taken place while the WHO has not yet approved the sting.
Oxford University's vaccine, which is being developed with pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca, is currently in phase three in the UK and Brazil.
In these tests, the vaccine will be given to tens of thousands of people in real-world environments to see if it will protect them from Covid-19. It's the world's most advanced coronavirus vaccine study.
Professor Sarah Gilbert, who leads the Oxford team, is confident the sting could be ready by the end of the year for the most vulnerable people in society.
The team genetically engineered a virus so that it looks like the coronavirus – has the same spike proteins on the outside – but cannot cause infection inside a person.
This genetically-weakened virus is a type of virus called adenovirus, just like the ones that cause colds and were taken from chimps.
The UK government is not expected to start using the prick until major trials have shown that it is safe.
Professor Chris Whitty, England's chief medical officer, said Saturday it would be "stupid" to assume that a vaccine would be ready before 2021.
Professor Whitty said: “I would of course be happy if it came sooner rather than later, but I would be quite surprised if we had a highly effective vaccine that is ready for mass use in a large percentage of the population before the end of winter, certainly before this side of Christmas.
"Well, that may be wrong, a lot of people are doing a lot scientifically and logistically to make sure this is a pessimistic statement, to try to see if we can get a vaccine at an extraordinarily high rate, but we have to check that it works and we have to make sure that it is safe and that these things take time.
"I think if we look forward to a year the chances are much bigger than if we look forward to six months and we have to keep an eye on that kind of timescale."
WHICH TOP VACCINE CANDIDATES DO THE SECURED DEALS IN THE UK?
1. GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi Pasteur: 60 million cans
The government announced on July 29th that it had signed a deal with pharmaceutical giants GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Sanofi Pasteur
If the vaccine proves successful, the UK could start vaccinating priority groups like frontline health and social workers and those at increased risk for coronavirus as early as the first half of next year, Department of Corporate, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) said.
Human clinical trials of the vaccine will begin in September, followed by a phase 3 trial in December.
The vaccine is based on the existing technology used to manufacture Sanofi's seasonal flu vaccine. Genetic material from the surface protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is inserted into insect cells – the basis of Sanofi's influenza product – and then injected to elicit an immune response in a human patient.
2. AstraZeneca (Manufacturing University of Oxford): 100 million
AstraZeneca, which works with Oxford University, is already making the experimental vaccine after a deal was closed on May 17th.
Professor Sarah Gilbert, who leads the Oxford team, is confident the push could be ready for the most vulnerable by the end of the year.
Their comments came after the results of the first phase, published July 20 in The Lancet, were encouraging.
The team genetically engineered a virus so that it looks like the coronavirus – has the same spike proteins on the outside – but cannot cause infection inside a person. This genetically-weakened virus is a type of virus called adenovirus, just like the ones that cause colds and were taken from chimps.
3. BioNTech / Pfizer: 30 million
The US drug giant Pfizer – known for the manufacture of Viagra – and the German company BioNTech signed a contract with the British government on July 20th.
Positive results were reported from the ongoing Phase 2/3 clinical trial, named BNT162b1, on July 1. The company is currently conducting phase 2 studies.
Pfizer's vaccine is a so-called mRNA vaccine, which does not inject parts of the virus directly into the body, but sends genetic material.
mRNA vaccines program the body to produce parts of the virus itself by injecting the body with a molecule that tells disease-fighting cells what to make. The immune system then learns how to fight it.
4. Valneva: 60 million
The government has given Valneva – whose vaccine is in preclinical development – an undisclosed amount of money to expand their factory in Livingston, Scotland.
While the government announced a 60 million dose deal on July 20, the company said it had, in principle, reached an agreement with the UK government to provide up to 100 million doses.
Valneva's sting is an inactivated whole virus vaccine, which means it injects a damaged version of the coronavirus into the body itself.
The virus has been destroyed in a way that makes it incapable of causing infection, but the body still recognizes it as a dangerous invader and therefore triggers an immune response that it can remember in the event of a true Covid-19 infection .
5. Janssen (Johnson & Johnson): 30 million
The government has agreed to buy 30 million doses of a vaccine made by Janssen if it works.
Officials have agreed to help the company develop the sting by helping to fund a global clinical trial. The first human trials with Janssen's sting began in mid-July and are being carried out in the US and Belgium on adults over the age of 18.
The sting is called Ad26.COV2-S, recombinant, and is a type of sting called a recombinant vaccine against viral vectors.
Proteins that occur outside of the coronavirus are reproduced in a laboratory and then injected into the body to stimulate an immune response.
The ad part of the vaccine name means that an adenovirus – a virus best known to cause colds – is used as a vehicle for transporting coronavirus genetics into the body.
6. Novavax: 60 million
The UK has ordered 60 million doses of a vaccine being developed by US-based Novavax. It will help fund late-stage clinical trials in the UK and advance plans to manufacture the vaccine in the UK.
Novavax 'shock, named NVX-CoV2373, showed positive results in early clinical trials.
It produced an immune response in 100 percent of people who received it, the company said, and was safe and "generally well tolerated."
Novavax's candidate is also a recombinant vaccine and transports the spike proteins located on the outside of the coronavirus into the body to provoke the immune system.
7. Imperial College London: Unknown crowd
Scientists at Imperial College London are working on Britain's second hope for a stab. The candidate is slightly behind Oxford's vaccine in terms of progress through clinical trials, but is still a major player.
The UK government is believed to have agreed to buy the vaccine if it works, but details of a deal have not yet been released.
The Imperial shock is currently in the second phase of human trials after initial tests showed it is safe.
Imperial College London will attempt to provide genetic material (RNA) from the coronavirus that will program cells in the patient's body to restore the spike proteins. It transports the RNA in droplets of liquid that are injected into the bloodstream.
Anger over Donald Trump's approval of using blood from Covid-19 survivors to treat infected patients as top scientists warn there is no evidence that it works
Anger erupted today over the controversial US decision to authorize treatment of Covid-19 patients with the blood of coronavirus survivors.
Top scientists warned there is no evidence that the centuries-old treatment works, although several studies show promising results.
The Food and Drug Administration gave the doctors emergency clearance to use convalescent plasma last night. The known and potential benefits of the product outweigh the known and potential risks of the product.
Donald Trump called it a "very big day" at a White House briefing yesterday, adding that the approval was a "really historic" moment. The U.S. president also claimed the treatment has been shown to reduce the likelihood of death from coronavirus by more than a third.
However, scientists criticized US officials for the "poor conclusion" because the therapy hasn't been subjected to the most rigorous human studies, meaning there is no conclusive evidence that the treatment works.
However, one expert called it "good news" and hopes that the UK can soon begin routine convalescent plasma use on a routine basis.
British researchers, who led a large study of promising therapies – which found dexamethasone may lower the risk of death in critically ill coronavirus patients – said the move "destroyed a good science that protects patients".
The FDA said more than 70,000 patients have been treated with convalescent plasma, in which infected patients receive the antibody-rich blood from survivors to boost their immune responses and fight the disease.
It comes just days after leading U.S. experts, namely Dr. Anthony Fauci and Dr. Francis Collins, reportedly intervened to suspend the approval of convalescent plasma because the evidence was insufficient.
Trump hit the FDA over the weekend, accusing the agency of trying to postpone approval of Covid-19 therapeutics until after the presidential election in November.
"This is a very big day," President Trump said at a briefing at the White House on Sunday, adding that the approval was a "really historic" moment
Dr. Eric Feigl-Ding, a Harvard epidemiologist, said, "What the hell – this is a bad conclusion for convalescent plasma – it wasn't a randomized trial."
Martin Landray, Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology at Oxford University who leads the RECOVERY study, did not welcome the FDA approval
WHAT IS CONVALESCENT PLASMA AND WHERE WAS IT USED?
Convalescent plasma has been used to treat infections for at least a century, dating back to the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic.
It was also tested during the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, the 2003 SARS epidemic, and the 2012 MERS epidemic.
Convalescent plasma has been used as a last resort to improve the survival rate of patients with SARS who have continued to deteriorate.
It has been shown to be "effective and lifesaving" against other infections such as rabies and diphtheria, said Dr. Mike Ryan from the World Health Organization.
"It's a very important area," said Dr. Ryan.
While showing promise, convalescent plasma has not been shown to be effective in every disease studied, according to the FDA.
Is it already being used in COVID-19 patients?
Before it can be routinely administered to patients with COVID-19, it is important to determine whether it is safe and effective through clinical studies.
The FDA said it was "facilitating access" for treatment in patients with severe or immediately life-threatening COVID-19 infections.
It came after New York Governor Andrew Cuomo said it would be testing plasma to treat the sickest coronavirus patients in the state.
COVID-19 patients in Beijing, Wuhan and Shanghai are being treated with this method, according to the authorities.
Lu Hongzhou, professor and co-director of the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, said in February that the hospital has set up a special clinic to conduct plasma therapy and is selecting patients who are willing to donate.
"We believe that this method can be very effective for our patients," he said.
Meanwhile, the head of a Wuhan hospital said plasma infusions from recovered patients had shown some encouraging preliminary results.
The MHRA has approved the use of the therapy in the UK, but it has not disclosed which hospitals have tried it.
How does it work?
Blood banks accept plasma donations in a similar way to whole blood donations; Normal plasma is used daily in hospitals and emergency rooms.
If someone just donates plasma, their blood is drawn through a tube, the plasma is separated off, and the rest is infused back into the donor's body.
The plasma is then tested and purified to ensure that it does not contain blood-borne viruses and is safe to use.
For COVID-19 research, people who have recovered from the coronavirus would donate.
Scientists would measure how many antibodies there are in a unit of donated plasma – tests are being developed that are not available to the public – to find out what a good dose is and how often a survivor could donate.
There is also the possibility that asymptomatic patients – those who never showed symptoms or were uncomfortable – can donate. But these "silent carriers" would first have to be found through testing.
Japanese pharmaceutical company Takeda is working on a drug that contains recovered patient antibodies in pill form, Stat News reported.
Could it work as a vaccine?
Similarly, while scientists race to develop a COVID-19 vaccine, blood plasma therapy could provide temporary protection for the most vulnerable.
A vaccine trains people's immune systems to make their own antibodies against a target germ. The plasma infusion approach would give people a temporary shot of antibodies from others, which are short-lived and require repeated doses.
If the U.S. regulatory agency approves the FDA, a second study would give high-antibody plasma infusions to certain people at high risk from repeated exposure to COVID-19, such as hospital workers or first aiders, said Dr. Liise-anne Pirofski of Montefiore Health in the New York System and Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
This could include nursing homes if a resident falls ill in hopes of providing some protection for the other people in the home, she said.
The new FDA approval means those who have had coronavirus and have recovered can now donate their blood to use to treat those currently suffering from the disease.
The FDA approves public health emergency clearances to expedite unapproved therapeutics for the treatment or prevention of serious illnesses when there are no other reasonable and available alternatives.
For example, on May 1, the FDA approved the emergency use of Gilead Science's experimental antiviral remdesivir to treat patients.
"Today I am pleased to make a truly historic announcement in our fight against the China virus that will save countless lives," Trump said last night when speaking with Secretary of Health and Human Services Alex Azar and FDA Commissioner Stephen Hahn was flanked.
The president also claimed the treatment has been shown to reduce the likelihood of death from coronavirus by more than a third.
Mr. Azar said, “I just want to emphasize this point because I don't want you to gloss over this number. In drug development, we dream of a mortality reduction of around 35 percent. & # 39;
& # 39; This is a huge advancement in patient care. This is a big step forward. & # 39;
Trump claimed that over 100,000 Americans have already signed up for this treatment.
"Based on the science and data, the FDA has made an independent determination that the treatment is safe and very effective," assured Trump.
He stressed that he was not the one pushing for approval.
Mayo Clinic researchers announced results last week suggesting convalescent plasma could improve the chances of survival for Covid-19 patients.
The study examined 35,000 patients with convalescent plasma, including a large number of critically ill patients.
However, the study compared patients who received the treatment. The mortality rates between patients with high or low antibody doses and between patients treated early and treated later were examined.
This is different from a randomized, placebo-controlled study – when an experimental drug or therapy is compared to a placebo or alternative medicine to see if it really offers better survival rates.
Randomized trials are considered the gold standard for testing if therapy is really working, as they remove any bias.
The results were published on August 12th on a pre-print server, MedRxiv. Since they are not included in a medical journal, they have not yet been reviewed by other scientists, which helps to report bugs.
The results show that 8.7 percent of patients treated with convalescent plasma within three days of diagnosis died after seven days, compared with about 12 percent of patients treated four days or more after diagnosis – one statistical difference of about 37 percent.
Those treated with plasma with the highest levels of antibodies had a 35 percent lower risk of death within a week than those treated with less-rich plasma.
Dr. Eric Feigl-Ding, a Harvard epidemiologist, pointed out that the 35 percent reduction in mortality was not between the experimental and control groups.
When he responded to news of FDA approval on Twitter, he said, “What the hell. This is a poor conclusion for convalescent plasma – it was not a randomized study. Trump doesn't care, but the FDA chief should know better! & # 39;
There are two randomized controlled trials of convalescence plasma therapy in the UK – the REMAP-CAP trial is looking to help patients in the ICU, while the RECOVERY trial is looking at hospitalized patients.
Martin Landray, Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology at Oxford University who leads the RECOVERY study, did not welcome the FDA approval.
He wrote on Twitter: & # 39; Convalescent plasma for COVID-19. It can work. We hope it will work. But nobody knows if that is the case. That's why we're studying it in the #RECOVERYtrial. Then we will know and don't have to guess. & # 39;
Another leader of the RECOVERY study, Peter Horby, Professor of Emerging Infectious Diseases at Oxford, said: “The widespread use of unproven treatments creates confusion and undermines the chances of improving care through adequate science.
"This is not" cutting red tape, "it is tearing apart good science that protects patients."
Professor Lawrence Young, a virologist from the University of Warwick, was pleased with the developments.
He told MailOnline: & # 39; FDA approval for the emergency use of convalescent plasma to treat Covid-19 is good news.
"I have been a strong supporter of this approach since the outbreak began and, along with other colleagues, have asked the government to investigate its use."
Convalescence plasma therapy has been used to prevent and treat many infectious diseases for more than a century. For the past 20 years this approach has been used successfully in the treatment of the 2009 SARS, MERS and H1N1 pandemic flu with a good safety profile and effectiveness.
"I hope the UK study reports soon and we can start routinely using convalescent plasma to treat patients with Covid-19."
Dr. Feigl-Ding pointed out that the 35 percent reduction in mortality was not between the experimental group and the control group
Another leader of the RECOVERY study, Peter Horby, Professor of Emerging Infectious Diseases at Oxford, said: "The widespread use of unproven treatments creates confusion and undermines the chances of improving care through adequate science."
"We dream about a 35 percent reduction in mortality in drug development," said Azar of the convalescent plasma treatment. & # 39; This is a huge advancement in patient care
(tagsToTranslate) Dailymail (t) Nachrichten (t) Russia (t) Donald Trump (t) Coronavirus (t) Coronavirus vaccine research