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Debenhams & # 39; Jobs are in danger with the collapse of Arcadia


JD Sports pulled the plug today on the proposed Debenhams acquisition that blamed Arcadia's administrative collapse when Sir Philip Green was asked to sell his £ 100m yacht to support his 13,000 employees before Christmas and that Save £ 350 million black hole in their pensions.

Debenhams could now vanish off the main drag as the company confirms it has run out of buyers and will now begin winding down, putting 12,000 employees at risk of being laid off.

Arcadia's concessions in Debenhams’s 124 stores, including Topshop and Dorothy Perkins, have annual sales of £ 75 million – and without them, the company, founded in 1778, faces liquidation.

The collapse of the two retail giants means up to 25,000 retail workers in the UK could lose their jobs as high streets across the country are decimated by soaring online sales and the coronavirus crisis.

Debenhams said it would continue to act to clear its current and contracted shares. "If no alternative offers are received after this process is complete, the UK deal will be closed," the company said in a statement.

Sir Philip Green strolled the streets of Monaco over the weekend, where his superyacht Lionheart is still moored today. 13,000 Arcadia employees were at risk. He is reportedly planning a Christmas getaway at a luxury resort in the Maldives.

One of Sir Philip's customer service representatives told the BBC today that he had a message for his boss, whose wife Lady Tina is officially the owner of the Arcadia Group, saying, “I think he should sell his yacht and pull money out of his own pocket to help his staff and make sure people don't go without money for Christmas. & # 39;

Sir Philip Green is coming under increasing pressure to bail out Arcadia's pension system, which has an estimated deficit of £ 350 million. But experts have said Sir Philip likely won't be hooked for it.

Lucy Powell, Secretary of State for Shadow Business, said today: & # 39;This is devastating news for the 12,000 Debenhams employees facing a very worrying Christmas season, on top of the news that Arcadia has gone into administration.

"The government urgently needs to outline how it will support the people affected by the collapse of these businesses, including urging Philip Green to do the right thing and redress Arcadia's pension deficit."

Sir Philip Green, pictured with wife Tina, saw his Arcadia administration collapse last night

Sir Philip, who lives in Monaco, was seen relaxed over the weekend in the French principality, where he is keeping the super yacht

Sir Philip, who lives in Monaco, was seen relaxed over the weekend in the French principality, where he is keeping the super yacht

An Arcadia employee told the BBC that Sir Philip Green should sell his superyacht Lionheart (Image: workers aboard the yacht when it was docked in Italy) to help staff

An Arcadia employee told the BBC that Sir Philip Green should sell his superyacht Lionheart (Image: workers aboard the yacht when it was docked in Italy) to help staff

Timeline of key events in Sir Philip Green's career – from payouts and acquisitions to a pension scandal and alleged sexual harassment

Sir Philip Green has brought in administrators at Deloitte to his Arcadia chain, which includes Topshop and Dorothy Perkins.

The businessman's career has hit massive highs, including a £ 1.2 billion payout in 2005, but has also been marred by a pension scandal and sexual harassment allegations.

Here is a timeline of his rise and fall in the fashion world.

Sir Philip Green sits Kate Moss with her sister Lottie in the Fall / Winter 2014/15 collection Unique by Topshop during London Fashion Week

Sir Philip Green sits Kate Moss with her sister Lottie in the Fall / Winter 2014/15 collection Unique by Topshop during London Fashion Week

1979: Sir Philip buys 10 designer outlets that have failed. He chemically cleans the warehouse and puts it back for sale in a shop in Mayfair.

1981-88: The aspiring businessman starts several companies. Like the Joan Collins Jeans Company, many fail and some are liquidated. During this time he also did several successful businesses.

1988: Sir Philip joins Amber Day, the listed men's fashion group. He scores multiple victories in the role and Amber Day's share price rises. But he leaves in 1992 after the company missed profits.

2000: Sir Philip buys FTSE 100-listed BHS department store for £ 200 million. He quickly receives praise for turning the difficult business around.

2002: Sir Philip buys the Arcadia Group, the owner of Topshop, through the family business Taveta.

2004: The businessman tries to take over high street giant Marks & Spencer, but pulls back after getting very close to closing a deal.

2005: Arcadia will pay a dividend of £ 1.3 billion, of which £ 1.2 billion will go to Sir Philip's wife Tina, who lives in Monaco and therefore does not have to pay UK taxes.

2007: Topshop launches a range of clothing items designed by supermodel Kate Moss.

2010: Protesters gather outside Topshop on Oxford Street claiming the businessman is avoiding income tax.

2015: Sir Philip sells BHS to Dominic Chappell for £ 1.

2016: BHS goes into administration, leaves a pension deficit of £ 571 million and costs 11,000 people to work.

MPs pass a motion to remove Sir Philip's chivalry over the retirement scandal. He later pays £ 363 million into the program.

2018: The Telegraph reports that employees accuse an unnamed businessman of sexual harassment and racial abuse. Sir Philip is later identified by an MP as the businessman in question.

2020: Covid-19 hits the main street. Arcadia closes 444 stores and employs 9,294 people.

On November 30th, administrators announced to Deloitte that the Arcadia retail empire with 13,000 jobs at risk has fallen into administration.

Sir Philip, who lives in Monaco, was seen relaxed over the weekend in the French principality, where he is keeping the super yacht. Speaking to Radio Four Today's program, the Arcadia employee said on condition of anonymity: “We weren't really told what was happening. We just know that we have to keep working normally.

“I have a pension, but I'm not sure what will happen to it. I think we may be unemployed.

Meanwhile, Sir Ian Cheshire, former chairman of Debenhams and current chairman of Barclays, said he was "desperately sorry for those" whose jobs were at risk.

But he told BBC Radio Four that he was "not surprised" that news of the Arcadia collapse could affect the impact on Debenhams.

He said, "They both faced the same problem: how fast can you change?" especially if you are stuck with long leases and costs and the internet. You were caught in a straitjacket.

"The real problem now is you have to be so much faster and have so much more online to get through the online press."

Debenhams' future is reportedly pending and JD Sports is set to land a bailout deal amid the collapse of the Arcadia retail group.

The JD Sports group is said to have closed a deal to purchase the department store chain it manages.

But the Arcadia collapse has now threatened to derail the Debenhams bailout, leaving the fate of 25,000 jobs in the balance.

Sir Philip Green's empire owns Topshop, Wallis, and Dorothy Perkins – and Arcadia and its eight brands broke into administration last night.

The group, which employs 13,000 people, is the largest single franchise in Debenham's stores and has sales of around £ 75 million.

The Arcadia collapse could take the department store with it as it could now be liquidated and risk another 12,000 jobs.

JD Sports, which had exclusive talks last week to save Debenhams, reconsidered how the Arcadia collapse would weigh on department stores' finances.

Arcadia branded sales are believed to be approximately 5 percent of Debenhams' total sales.

Investors flocked to buy JD stock yesterday, adding 5.8 percent, or 43p, to 776.2p, believing taking over such a distressed chain would be risky.

A dramatic day ensued when Arcadia turned down an offer for a £ 50 million rescue loan from Green's bitter rival Mike Ashley, who runs House of Fraser and Sports Direct.

Ashley is expected to take on online giant Boohoo to buy Arcadia's bombed-out brands, with Topshop likely to fetch the highest price.

Retail experts said yesterday that Green and his wife Tina had not invested enough in Outfit, Burton and Miss Selfridge, or built a successful online business like rivals Zara, H&M and Boohoo.

A dispute also broke out yesterday over the company's pension system after it was discovered that there may be a black hole of £ 200 million to £ 250 million.

The deficit could result in 10,000 retirees cutting their payouts by a fifth.

In 2017, Green was forced to invest £ 363million in the BHS worker pension scheme after being asked to lose his knighthood for "retail services".

Former city minister Lord Myners said Green was "a fortune stripper": "He doesn't invest in his business, he milks them."

Ian Grabiner, head of Arcadia, said: "Given the most difficult trading conditions we have ever faced, the obstacles we encountered were far too severe."

There will be no immediate job loss and businesses will continue to act.

The Arcadia Group, which employs 13,000 people, is the largest single concession in Debenhams (pictured) and has sales of approximately £ 75 million

The Arcadia Group, which employs 13,000 people, is the largest single concession in Debenhams (pictured) and has sales of approximately £ 75 million

The high street giant, which owns the Topshop, Dorothy Perkins and Burton brands, hired Deloitte administrators after the coronavirus pandemic "severely affected" its brands' sales

The high street giant, which owns the Topshop, Dorothy Perkins and Burton brands, hired Deloitte administrators after the coronavirus pandemic "severely affected" its brands' sales

Sir Philip, 68, acquired Arcadia in 2002 for £ 850 million. Although its managing director blamed the giant's death on the pandemic, experts have indicated that Arcadia is struggling to respond to increasing competition from cheap rivals like Primark and online disruptors like ASOS and Boohoo.

Critics have also accused Sir Philip, who has been embroiled in a number of controversies over the past few years, of not investing enough in businesses to get them in shape to cope with new competition in retail.

Arcadia is the youngest retailer to suffer from store closings during the pandemic. Competitors like Debenhams, the Edinburgh Woolen Mill Group and Oasis Warehouse have gone bankrupt since March.

The group, which operates 444 stores in the UK and 22 overseas, said 9,294 employees are currently on vacation. No layoffs are announced yet due to the appointment, and businesses continue to act.

The administrators said they were "looking at all the options available," which could lead to brands being sold in separate rescue stores.

Arcadia will continue to consider all online orders placed on Black Friday weekend and will continue to operate all current sales channels, according to a press release.

The Usdaw retail union said it would seek an urgent meeting with Arcadia administrators to save jobs and ensure employees are treated fairly if Sir Philip's retail empire goes bankrupt.

Economic Secretary Alok Sharma said he would "monitor very closely" the administrators' report on the conduct of the directors and promised that the government would support the workers concerned.

In a statement, Arcadia CEO Ian Grabiner said, "Given the most difficult trading conditions we have ever encountered, the obstacles we encountered were far too severe."

Sir Philip & # 39; s Arcadia is the latest retailer to suffer from store closures during the pandemic. Competitors like Debenhams, the Edinburgh Woolen Mill Group and Oasis Warehouse have gone bankrupt since March

Sir Philip & # 39; s Arcadia is the latest retailer to suffer from store closures during the pandemic. Competitors like Debenhams, the Edinburgh Woolen Mill Group and Oasis Warehouse have gone bankrupt since March

The group, which operates 444 stores in the UK and 22 overseas, said 9,294 employees are currently on vacation. No layoffs are announced yet due to the appointment, and businesses continue to act

The group, which operates 444 stores in the UK and 22 overseas, said 9,294 employees are currently on vacation. No layoffs are announced yet due to the appointment, and businesses continue to act

Sir Philip Green: The ups and downs

Sir Philip's career has hit massive highs, including a £ 1.2 billion payout in 2005, but has also been marred by a pension scandal and sexual harassment allegations. The 68-year-old dominated the UK retail scene for two decades, building a multi-billion pound fortune through a series of acquisitions.

He's been knighted by the Queen, hailed by Prime Ministers, and rubbed over the shoulders with A-listers like supermodel Kate Moss and actor Sylvester Stallone.

He lived in Monaco, home of the super-rich, and was regularly photographed by the media on his £ 100 million superyacht Lionheart. He even hired Beyonce to perform at his son's bar mitzvah party.

Sir Philip bought department store chain BHS for £ 200 million in 2000, Arcadia for £ 850 million two years later, and tried twice to buy Marks & Spencer.

Its flagship brand, Topshop, was the destination for teenagers and affordable fashion lovers. In 2009 he brought the brand to the US and opened a large New York store.

When he sold a 25 percent stake in Topshop to US private equity firm Leonard Green & Partners in 2012, the brand alone was valued at £ 2 billion, cementing his often-cited nickname "King of the High Street".

What followed was a series of business missteps that caused his empire to dissolve and also shattered the personal reputation of a businessman whose street-savvy public image denied a gentler start in life.

Sir Philip attended Carmel College, but left at the age of 16 without formal qualifications and, supported by a loan from his family, threw himself into the turmoil of the London rag trade. As a brick and mortar retailer, he couldn't adapt his fast fashion brands when competitors emerged.

They have been undercut by new players like Zara, H&M and Primark from Inditex, while they have been outdone by ecommerce specialists like ASOS and Boohoo for failing to successfully build online businesses.

The hammer blow to Sir Philip's reputation came in 2015 when he sold BHS to a collection of little-known investors, including the former bankrupt Dominic Chappell, for a face value of £ 1. A year later, BHS went out of business with 11,000 jobs lost and a £ 571 million hole in its pension fund.

Until then, politicians, the public and the press had often admired Green despite his extravagant lifestyle. In 2005, when Arcadia paid Sir Philip's wife, Tina, the group's ultimate owner, a dividend of £ 1.2 billion, some people declined the payout while others viewed it as the fruits of his success. However, after the BHS collapse, all bets were void.

Calling him the "unacceptable face of capitalism", MPs said his greed and disregard for corporate governance led to the company's downfall and demanded that it be stripped of its knighthood.

After being prosecuted by the Pension Commission, Sir Philip wrote a check for £ 363 million in 2017 to close the hole in the BHS Pension Fund. However, his reputation was further tarnished when he was named in Parliament for attempting to prevent him from publishing allegations of sexual harassment against Arcadia employees. He denies the allegations.

Meanwhile, trading at Arcadia, which owns Topshop, Topman, Dorothy Perkins, Wallis, Miss Selfridge, Evans, Burton, and Outfit and has more than 500 stores, continued to deteriorate. Restructuring last year offered only a temporary deadline. Covid-19 bans were the last straw.

The group's collapse is a bitter blow to Sir Philip, who has long prided himself on his financial acumen.

During an interview with Reuters in 2012, he pulled a wad of fifty pound bills out of his pocket. "I'd rather talk about things I understand," he said. "That's money."

He added: “This is an incredibly sad day for all of our colleagues as well as our suppliers and our many other stakeholders. Our stores remain open or reopen if permitted by state Covid-19 restrictions. Our online platforms are fully functional and deliveries to all of our partners are continuing. & # 39;

Matt Smith, Joint Administrator at Deloitte, said: & # 39; We will now work with the existing management team and wider stakeholders to evaluate all available options for the future of the group’s companies.

& # 39; We intend to continue trading all brands and look forward to welcoming customers back to stores when many of them are allowed to reopen. We will look for expressions of interest quickly and expect to identify one or more buyers to ensure the companies' future success. & # 39;

Usdaw National Officer Dave Gill said, “Now that Arcadia is in charge, it is critical that the voice of employees is heard about the future of the company and this is best done through their union.

& # 39; We seek urgent meetings and need assurances about the efforts that will be made to save jobs, the plan for business continuity and the funding of the pension system. In the meantime, we are providing our members with the support and advice they need during this very difficult time.

& # 39; Over 200,000 retail job losses and 20,000 store closures this year are absolutely devastating and show the scale of the challenge the industry is facing. Each of these job losses is a personal tragedy for individual workers, and business closings are affecting our main streets and communities.

“What the retail sector needs is a joint strategy where unions, employers and government work together to develop a recovery plan. Usdaw has long called for an industrial retail strategy as part of our Save our Shops campaign to help a sector struggling before the coronavirus emergency.

& # 39; Retail is vital to our city and downtown. It employs around three million people across the UK. The government must take this seriously; We need a recovery plan to get the industry back on its feet. & # 39;

Sir Philip's career has hit massive highs, including a £ 1.2 billion payout in 2005, but has also been marred by a pension scandal and sexual harassment allegations. The 68-year-old dominated the UK retail scene for two decades, building a multi-billion pound fortune through a series of acquisitions.

He's been knighted by the Queen, hailed by Prime Ministers, and rubbed over the shoulders with A-listers like supermodel Kate Moss and actor Sylvester Stallone.

He lived in Monaco, home of the super-rich, and was regularly photographed by the media on his £ 100 million superyacht Lionheart. He even hired Beyonce to perform at his son's bar mitzvah party.

Sir Philip bought department store chain BHS for £ 200 million in 2000, Arcadia for £ 850 million two years later, and tried twice to buy Marks & Spencer.

Its flagship brand, Topshop, was the destination for teenagers and affordable fashion lovers. In 2009 he brought the brand to the US and opened a large New York store.

When he sold a 25 percent stake in Topshop to US private equity firm Leonard Green & Partners in 2012, the brand alone was valued at £ 2 billion, cementing his often-cited nickname "King of the High Street".

What followed was a series of business missteps that caused his empire to dissolve and also shattered the personal reputation of a businessman whose street-savvy public image denied a gentler start in life.

Sir Philip attended Carmel College, but left at the age of 16 without formal qualifications and, supported by a loan from his family, threw himself into the turmoil of the London rag trade. As a brick and mortar retailer, he couldn't adapt his fast fashion brands when competitors emerged.

They have been undercut by new players like Zara, H&M and Primark from Inditex, while they have been outdone by ecommerce specialists like ASOS and Boohoo for failing to successfully build online businesses.

The hammer blow to Sir Philip's reputation came in 2015 when he sold BHS to a collection of little-known investors, including the former bankrupt Dominic Chappell, for a face value of £ 1. A year later, BHS went out of business with 11,000 jobs lost and a £ 571 million hole in its pension fund.

Until then, politicians, the public and the press had often admired Green despite his extravagant lifestyle. In 2005, when Arcadia paid Sir Philip's wife, Tina, the group's ultimate owner, a dividend of £ 1.2 billion, some people declined the payout while others viewed it as the fruits of his success. However, after the BHS collapse, all bets were void.

Calling him the "unacceptable face of capitalism", MPs said his greed and disregard for corporate governance led to the company's downfall and demanded that it be stripped of its knighthood.

After being prosecuted by the Pension Commission, Sir Philip wrote a check for £ 363 million in 2017 to close the hole in the BHS Pension Fund. However, his reputation was further tarnished when he was named in Parliament for attempting to prevent him from publishing allegations of sexual harassment against Arcadia employees. He denies the allegations.

Meanwhile, trading at Arcadia, which owns Topshop, Topman, Dorothy Perkins, Wallis, Miss Selfridge, Evans, Burton, and Outfit and has more than 500 stores, continued to deteriorate. Restructuring last year offered only a temporary deadline. Covid-19 bans were the last straw.

The group's collapse is a bitter blow to Sir Philip, who has long prided himself on his financial acumen.

During an interview with Reuters in 2012, he pulled a wad of fifty pound bills out of his pocket. "I'd rather talk about things I understand," he said. "That's money."

ARKADIEN'S MOST FAMOUS BRANDS: HOW TO DOMINATE THE HIGH STREET OF UK

Topshop / Topman

Topshop is arguably the best known of Arcadia's current brands, but it grew out of the humble beginnings of the basement of a department store in Sheffield.

In 1964, the brand began as a concession line called Peter Robinsons Top Shop, when the department store chain sought new sales with younger customers.

The new line quickly became popular with large concessions throughout the nationwide department store chain before the first independent Topshop was introduced in 1970.

In the same year she launched the Topman brand, which soon established a rapidly growing branch network.

In 1992, Topshop and Topman jointly opened their flagship store on Oxford Street, which at the time was the largest fashion store in the world.

Topshop continued to grow and peaked in popularity after meeting the first of 14 collaborations with supermodel Kate Moss in 2007.

Moss was the face of the brand for another three years, during which Topshop crossed the Atlantic to open its first store outside the UK in New York.

However, the chain's U.S. branches were closed last year as part of a major reorganization to secure Arcadia's long-term future.

Topshop is arguably the best known of Arcadia's current brands, but it grew out of the humble beginnings of the basement of a department store in Sheffield. Pictured is a woman walking past a Topshop store on Oxford Street in London

Topshop is arguably the best-known of Arcadia's current brands, but it grew out of the humble beginnings of the basement of a department store in Sheffield. Pictured is a woman walking past a Topshop store on Oxford Street in London

Burton

The foundation for the men's Burton brand and the entire Arcadia group was laid when 15-year-old Meshe David Osinsky joined the thousands of Jews who fled westward from Russian persecution and went to the UK.

Vier Jahre später eröffnete er sein erstes Geschäft in der Holywell Street in Chesterfield, nachdem er sich 100 Pfund von einem Verwandten geliehen hatte, um The Cross-Tailoring Company zu gründen.

Der Gründer, der 1909 seinen Namen in Montague Burton änderte, baute sein Geschäft stetig aus, nachdem er die wachsende Nachfrage nach erschwinglicher und intelligenter Herrenbekleidung mit dem Mantra „Gute Kleidung entwickelt die Selbstachtung eines Mannes“ erschlossen hatte.

Das Geschäft wechselte während des Ersten Weltkriegs von Anzügen zu Uniformen und setzte seine Expansionsbemühungen im Nachkriegs-Großbritannien fort, um bis 1929, als es an der Londoner Börse an die Börse ging, 400 Geschäfte zu erreichen.

Die Gruppe, die damals als House of Burton bekannt wurde, wuchs weiter, als sie sich darauf konzentrierte, Rivalen zu schnappen oder sich mit Konkurrenten zusammenzuschließen, um eine Hauptstütze der Hauptstraße zu werden.

Es kaufte Jackson The Tailors im Jahr 1954, bevor es Geschäfte mit einer Reihe anderer Geschäfte abschloss, nachdem es 1967 in Arcadia Group umbenannt wurde.

Es besiegelte Verträge mit Dorothy Perkins (1979) und Debenhams (sechs Jahre später). Debenhams – das derzeit selbst in der Verwaltung ist – trennte sich jedoch 1998 vom Einzelhandelsimperium.

Das Geschäft wechselte während des Ersten Weltkriegs von Anzügen zu Uniformen und setzte seine Expansionsbemühungen im Nachkriegs-Großbritannien fort, um bis 1929, als es an der Londoner Börse an die Börse ging, 400 Geschäfte zu erreichen. Abgebildet ein Geschäft in Portsmouth

Das Geschäft wechselte während des Ersten Weltkriegs von Anzügen zu Uniformen und setzte seine Expansionsbemühungen im Nachkriegs-Großbritannien fort, um bis 1929, als es an der Londoner Börse an die Börse ging, 400 Geschäfte zu erreichen. Abgebildet ein Geschäft in Portsmouth

Dorothy Perkins

Das Unternehmen wurde am 6. Dezember 1909 als HP Newman & Co gegründet und 1919 in Dorothy Perkins umbenannt. Der Name stammt von einem Rosentyp und soll der Vorschlag der Frau eines der Direktoren des Unternehmens gewesen sein.

Ursprünglich hatte es 12 Geschäfte und zu Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs waren es 75 Standorte, die sich an Frauen mit kleinem Budget richteten, die nach Blusen und Strickwaren suchten.

Der Einzelhändler hielt mit der Mode des Tages Schritt und stellte regelmäßig Kleider, Dessous und Strumpfwaren für seinen treuen Kundenstamm her. Bis 1966 eröffnete der Einzelhändler sein 250. Geschäft und in allen Filialen wurden Registrierkassen eingerichtet.

Zu dieser Zeit gehörte es Alan Farmer und seiner Familie, und er besuchte regelmäßig Geschäfte und hatte sein Bild für neue Mitarbeiter in der Broschüre.

Das Unternehmen war auch an der Einführung des Londoner Modegeschäfts Biba im Jahr 1964 in der High Street Kensington im berühmten Barkers-Gebäude beteiligt und war anschließend in den 1970er Jahren an der Firma beteiligt.

1979 wurde es von der Burton Group – später Arcadia – gekauft und wuchs mit der Einführung eines Mutterschaftsangebots, Kundenkarten und teuren Werbekampagnen weiter.

In seiner Blütezeit gab es fast 1.000 Dorothy Perkins auf den Hauptstraßen Großbritanniens, und noch 2007 waren 600 geöffnet, darunter Geschäfte in ganz Spanien, Zypern, Tukey und Singapur.

In seiner Blütezeit gab es fast 1.000 Dorothy Perkins auf den Hauptstraßen Großbritanniens, und noch 2007 waren 600 geöffnet, darunter Geschäfte in ganz Spanien, Zypern, Tukey und Singapur. Im Bild gehen Käufer an einer Dorothy Perkins im Oxford Circus vorbei

In seiner Blütezeit gab es fast 1.000 Dorothy Perkins auf den Hauptstraßen Großbritanniens, und noch 2007 waren 600 geöffnet, darunter Geschäfte in ganz Spanien, Zypern, Tukey und Singapur. Im Bild gehen Käufer an einer Dorothy Perkins im Oxford Circus vorbei

Miss Selfridge

Miss Selfridge hat ähnliche Wurzeln wie das Schwestergeschäft von Topshop, da es auch in einem berühmten Kaufhaus gegründet wurde, das 1966 aus der jungen Modeabteilung von Selfridges in London hervorging.

Das Unternehmen erhielt seinen Namen, als Charles Clore, der damalige Besitzer von Selfridges, im Bonwit Teller-Laden in New York ein Schaufenster sah, auf dem Miss Bonwit-Kleider speziell für Teenager gezeigt wurden.

Die ersten Schaufensterpuppen von Miss Selfridge basierten auf dem Modell Twiggy aus den Sechzigern. Die ersten Kleider bestanden aus Papier und sollten einmal getragen und dann weggeworfen werden.

1967 wurden Miss Selfridge-Konzessionen in größerem Umfang eröffnet, bevor 1969 die ersten unabhängigen Geschäfte in Croydon, Brighton, Regent Street und Brompton eröffnet wurden.

Das Unternehmen konzentrierte sich auf Innovationen für junge Käufer und war 1978 der erste Modehändler, der seine eigene Make-up-Kollektion Kiss & Make Up auf den Markt brachte.

1999 wurde es zusammen mit Wallis und Outfit als Teil der Sears Group an Arcadia verkauft.

Miss Selfridge has similar roots to its Topshop sister business, as it also started life in a famous department store, sprouting from the young fashion section of Selfridges in London in 1966. Pictured, a Miss Selfridge sign in Oxford Circus, London

Miss Selfridge has similar roots to its Topshop sister business, as it also started life in a famous department store, sprouting from the young fashion section of Selfridges in London in 1966. Pictured, a Miss Selfridge sign in Oxford Circus, London

Evans

The Evans brand was launched on February 21, 1936 as the UK's first fashion retailer aimed at plus-sized women. It was originally called Evans Outsize but the Outsize was subsequently dropped.

In 1971, it was bought by the all-powerful Burton (later Arcadia) Group but would continue to trade separately, catering to its growing audience.

At the same time, Evans launched a mail order service – one of the first dedicated to plus-sized customers – and would grow to become the dominant brand for women's clothing above a size 14.

By 1997, innovation would continue as it became the first Arcadia brand to launch an online store alongside its mail order catalogue.

It would continue to enjoy success and launched ranges with models and celebrities including Beth Ditto and Dawn French.

The Evans brand was launched on February 21, 1936 as the UK's first fashion retailer aimed at plus-sized women. It was originally called Evans Outsize but the Outsize was subsequently dropped. Pictured, a store in Andover from 2015

The Evans brand was launched on February 21, 1936 as the UK's first fashion retailer aimed at plus-sized women. It was originally called Evans Outsize but the Outsize was subsequently dropped. Pictured, a store in Andover from 2015

Wallis

Wallis was seen as the higher-end version of its sister brand Dorothy Perkins and can trace its roots back to a market stall in Chapel Market, Islington, in 1923.

Founded by Raphael Nat Wallis as NW (Costumiers), he sold coats for 19 shillings and fashionable dresses for 43s/6d, and it quickly expanded.

By 1936, it was renamed Wallis & Company (Costumiers) and would have 25 shops by the 1940s.

Taking its influence from French fashion houses Chanel and Dior, the company would thrive during the 1950s and 60s, with Christine Keeler wearing a different Wallis outfit during each appearance at the Profumo affair trial.

In 1969, Jeffrey Wallis, the son of founder RN Wallis, said of the Paris influences for the designs: 'We never adapt, we copy. Couture designers are geniuses. We only simplify.'

By 1976, the company listed on the stock market and had 54 stores, including sites in Germany, Switzerland and Sweden, and was eventually bought by Sears in 1980, before being transferred to the Arcadia brand.

By 1976, the company listed on the stock market and had 54 stores, including sites in Germany, Switzerland and Sweden, and was eventually bought by Sears in 1980, before being transferred to the Arcadia brand. Pictured, in Chichester

By 1976, the company listed on the stock market and had 54 stores, including sites in Germany, Switzerland and Sweden, and was eventually bought by Sears in 1980, before being transferred to the Arcadia brand. Pictured, in Chichester

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