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Bandana masks "significantly worse" than homemade cotton covers


Well-fitting cone-style masks and homemade coverings made from multiple layers of fabric are the best designs to stop the spread of the corona virus.

Florida Atlantic University researchers examined various materials and designs to find the best option to slow the spread of virus-bearing droplets.

These droplets are expelled when someone coughs or sneezes with COVID-19 and tests show that loosely folded bandana-style masks and covers do the worst.

According to researchers, this is because these designs offer minimal droplet stopping ability, which can spread up to 8 feet unhindered.

They found that a simple bandana-style mask can prevent droplets from becoming more than 3 feet tall, but a homemade, well-fitting mask made of cotton fabric stops droplets at 2.5 inches.

The smallest droplets of breath emerge through a face mask, which consists of a folded bandana-style handkerchief and spreads up to three feet from the wearer

With the stitched quilted cotton mask, the droplets moved 2.5 inches, significantly less than the 3 feet of a bandana mask

The pathogen responsible for COVID-19 mainly occurs in breath droplets that are emitted by infected people when they cough, sneeze, or even when they speak and breathe, the Florida team explained.

This explains governments' reasons for recommending face coverings – to reduce the risk of cross-infection from infected to healthy people.

THE DIFFERENCE A MASK MAKES: FROM 8FT TO 8 INCHES

Without a mask, droplets could be from a cough up to eight feet from the person who is coughing.

Sneezing gets worse when the droplets infected with the virus can reach 12 feet in just 50 seconds.

However, this is significantly reduced by adding a mask.

  • With a bandana-style cover, they traveled three feet seven inches
  • With a folded cotton handkerchief, they traveled 1 foot, 3 inches
  • Cough drops were only 2.5 inches when covered by a sewn quilted cotton mask
  • With the cone-style mask, the droplets moved about 20 cm

On June 15, the British government in England made face covering mandatory for public transport – other countries have gone further and asked for it when they're out in public.

Nevertheless, the authorities have not yet announced guidelines for the best mask types to curb the spread of COVID-19.

The lead researcher of the study, Dr. Florida Atlantic University's Stella Batalama said she wanted to find the best ways to reduce the spread of COVID-19.

"Our researchers have shown how masks can significantly reduce the speed and range of breath droplets and jets," said Batalama.

"They also found out how emulated cough can go significantly further than the currently recommended distance policy."

The research team used a technique called "flow visualization" in a laboratory setting where a mixture of distilled water and glycerin was used to create a synthetic mist that mimicked cough drops.

They used a mannequin to simulate coughing and sneezing before revealing droplets that were expelled from the mouth.

They tested a range of masks that are easily accessible to the general public and that do not consume medical masks and breathing apparatus that are critical for health workers.

These included a single-layer bandana-style cover, a homemade mask sewn with two layers of quilted cotton, and a non-sterile cone mask.

By placing these different masks on the mannequin, they could map the paths of the droplets and show how differently they work.

The results showed that loosely folded face masks and bandana-style covers offer minimal stopping power for the smallest breath droplets.

Well-made homemade masks with several layers of quilting fabric and standard cone masks have proven to be the most effective.

They were able to "considerably" limit the speed and range of the respiratory jets, albeit with a certain amount of leakage through the mask itself and through small gaps at the edges.

Droplets traveled more than eight feet without a mask, three feet seven inches with a headscarf, and traveled 1 foot, 3 inches with a folded cotton handkerchief.

Cough drops were only 2.5 inches when covered by a sewn quilted cotton mask, and with the cone-style mask, droplets were approximately 8 inches.

Director of Studies Dr. Siddhartha Verma, assistant professor at FAU, said they wanted to convey to the public the importance of social distancing and face masks.

"Raising awareness of effective preventative measures is currently critical as we see significant spikes in COVID-19 infections in many states, particularly Florida," he said.

It is important that uncovered simulated cough could go significantly further than the current guidelines for distance – between three and six feet.

If the mannequin was not masked, they projected droplets up to 12 feet in about 50 seconds, with droplets floating in the air for up to three minutes.

The researchers said their observations suggest that current social distance guidelines may need to be increased rather than reduced.

With a folded cotton handkerchief, the droplets moved 1 foot, 3 inches, according to the team

With a folded cotton handkerchief, the droplets moved 1 foot, 3 inches, according to the team

In Britain, Boris Johnson announced a new 1-meter plus rule that required two meters (or 6 feet), but could be dropped with additional protective equipment such as face masks and guards.

The study's author, Professor Manhar Dhanak, said: “We found that although the unimpeded turbulent jets were observed to fly up to 12 feet, a large majority of the droplets ejected fell to the ground at that time.

"It is important that both the number and the concentration of the droplets decrease with increasing distance, which is the basic reason for social distance."

In addition to COVID-19, breath droplets are also the main means of transmission for various other viral and bacterial diseases.

With the cone-style mask, the droplets moved about 20 cm - the mask with the second best performance

With the cone-style mask, the droplets moved about 20 cm – the mask with the second best performance

This includes diseases such as cold, influenza, tuberculosis, SARS and MERS, according to the Florida researchers.

These pathogens are transmitted by breath droplets that land on healthy people and can lead to direct transmission.

If the pathogens land on objects, they can lead to infection if a healthy person comes into contact with them.

Dr. Batalama from FAU College of Engineering and Computer Science said the study results demonstrate the need for key workers to do simple experiments to test the quality of their PPE.

She added, "Her research describes the process of performing simple visualization experiments using readily available materials that can help health professionals, medical researchers, and manufacturers to qualitatively assess the effectiveness of face masks and other personal protective equipment."

The results were published in the journal Physics of Fluids.

BIG EXPERIMENT: A MICROBIOLOGIST BUYS, SNAPS AND SINGS IN A PETRI DISC TO DEMONSTRATE WHY MASKS ARE WORKING ON COVID-19

Disruptive images have been shared on social media showing the importance of a face mask in delaying the spread of the coronavirus.

Dr. Clinical microbiologist Richard Davis shared the grim pictures to show how important masks were when you couldn't distance yourself socially.

He sneezed, coughed, talked and sang in agar cultures that were held near his face – these are jelly-like substances from red algae in a petri dish.

The goal was to see how droplets of bacteria spread in cultures from different types of expulsion from the human mouth and from different distances.

Disruptive images have been shared on social media showing the importance of a face mask in delaying the spread of the coronavirus

Disruptive images have been shared on social media showing the importance of a face mask in delaying the spread of the coronavirus

"First I sneezed, sang, talked, and coughed on an agar culture plate with or without a mask," he said, adding that he had to wait for the bacteria to grow.

When the bacterial colonies formed, they showed where droplets landed – a mask practically blocks everyone, he said.

The UK is currently advising people to stay one meter apart in public. From July 4th, however, this value will be reduced to one meter plus. This focuses on the need for protective gear if you cannot distance yourself socially appropriately.

He then went on to demonstrate the importance of social distancing.

For the second demo, he placed the bacterial culture plates 2, 4 and 6 feet away and coughed (hard) for about 15 seconds and repeated without a mask.

When the bacterial colonies formed, they showed where droplets landed - a mask practically blocks everyone, he said.

When the bacterial colonies formed, they showed where droplets landed – a mask practically blocks everyone, he said.

"Droplets usually landed below 6 feet away, but a mask blocked almost everyone," said Davis.

He said this is usually not the way you model the spread of the coronavirus, but a way to demonstrate the effectiveness of facial coverings in slowing the spread.

Colonies of normal mouth and throat bacteria showed the spread of large breath droplets, as the scientists believe they spread COVID-19 most often, and "how a mask can block them," said Davis.

"Masks as a political / social litmus test or as a shame for those who don't wear them (or disabled people who really can't wear them!) Are a farce," he tweeted.

“After using the bathroom, we wash our hands and wipe our noses on the tissues. Masks / face protection need only be another normalized act of hygiene. & # 39;

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