A surge in coronavirus cases in the UK could accelerate the progress of the Oxford vaccine trials.

1. GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi Pasteur: 60 million cans

The government announced on July 29th that it had signed a deal with pharmaceutical giants GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Sanofi Pasteur

If the vaccine proves successful, the UK could start vaccinating priority groups as early as the first half of next year, e.g. B. Frontline health and social workers and those at increased risk for coronavirus (BEIS) said.

Human clinical trials of the vaccine will begin in September, followed by a phase 3 trial in December.

The vaccine is based on the existing technology used to manufacture Sanofi's seasonal flu vaccine. Genetic material from the surface protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is inserted into insect cells – the basis of Sanofi's influenza product – and then injected to elicit an immune response in a human patient.

2. AstraZeneca (Manufacturing University of Oxford): 100 million

AstraZeneca, which works with Oxford University, is already making the experimental vaccine after a deal was closed on May 17th.

Professor Sarah Gilbert, who leads the Oxford team, is confident that the push could be ready for the most vulnerable by the end of the year.

Their comments came after the results of the first phase, published July 20 in The Lancet, were encouraging.

The team genetically engineered a virus so that it looks like the coronavirus – has the same spike proteins on the outside – but cannot cause infection inside a person. This genetically-weakened virus is a type of virus called adenovirus, just like the ones that cause colds and were taken from chimps.

3. BioNTech / Pfizer: 30 million

US drug giant Pfizer – known for producing Viagra – and German company BioNTech signed a deal with the UK government on July 20th.

Positive results were reported from the ongoing Phase 2/3 clinical trial, named BNT162b1, on July 1. The company is currently conducting phase 2 studies.

Pfizer's vaccine is a so-called mRNA vaccine that does not inject pieces of virus directly into the body, but sends genetic material.

mRNA vaccines program the body to produce parts of the virus itself by injecting the body with a molecule that tells disease-fighting cells what to make. The immune system then learns how to fight it.

4. Valneva: 60 million

The government has given Valneva – whose vaccine is in preclinical development – an undisclosed amount of money to expand their factory in Livingston, Scotland.

While the government announced a 60 million dose deal on July 20, the company said it had in principle reached an agreement with the UK government to provide up to 100 million doses.

Valneva's sting is an inactivated whole virus vaccine, which means it injects a damaged version of the coronavirus into the body itself.

The virus has been destroyed in a way that makes it incapable of causing infection, but the body still recognizes it as a dangerous invader and therefore triggers an immune response that it can remember in the event of a true Covid-19 infection .

5. Janssen (Johnson & Johnson): 30 million

The government has agreed to buy 30 million doses of a vaccine made by Janssen if it works.

Officials have agreed to help the company develop the sting by helping to fund a global clinical trial. The first human trials with Janssen's sting began in mid-July and are being carried out in the United States and Belgium on adults over the age of 18.

The sting is called Ad26.COV2-S, recombinant, and is a type of sting called a recombinant vaccine against viral vectors.

Proteins that occur outside of the coronavirus are reproduced in a laboratory and then injected into the body to stimulate an immune response.

The ad part of the vaccine name means that an adenovirus – a virus best known to cause colds – is used as a vehicle for transporting coronavirus genetics into the body.

6. Novavax: 60 million

The UK has ordered 60 million doses of a vaccine being developed by US-based Novavax. It will help fund late-stage clinical trials in the UK and advance plans to manufacture the vaccine in the UK.

Novavax 'shock, named NVX-CoV2373, showed positive results in early clinical trials.

It produced an immune response in 100 percent of people who received it, the company said, and was safe and "generally well tolerated."

Novavax's candidate is also a recombinant vaccine and transports the spike proteins located on the outside of the coronavirus into the body to provoke the immune system.

7. Imperial College London: Unknown crowd

Scientists at Imperial College London are working on Britain's second hope for a stab. The candidate is slightly behind Oxford's vaccine in terms of progress through clinical trials, but is still a major player.

The UK government is believed to have agreed to buy the vaccine if it works, but details of a deal have not yet been released.

The Imperial shock is currently in the second phase of human trials after initial tests showed it is safe.

Imperial College London will attempt to provide genetic material (RNA) from the coronavirus that will program cells in the patient's body to restore the spike proteins. It transports the RNA in droplets of liquid that are injected into the bloodstream.

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